The evaluation of the potential of Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Naophoeta cinerea, Blaptica dubia, Gromphardhina portentosa, Periplaneta americana, Blatta lateralis, Oxyhalao duesta and Hermetia illucens for use in poultry feeds

Hopley, Davina (2016-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Insect protein as a source in poultry feed is slowly gaining popularity in terms of research. Therefore the purpose of this study was to look at unexplored aspects of insect protein, specifically its role in animal feeding. This involved investigating the chemical composition of selected insect species who have yet to gain popularity in this field, possible effects on gizzard erosion in broilers and total tract digestibilities, and also layer production and egg quality characteristics. In the first study, only eight of the potential nine insect species were selected for proximate analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the chemical composition of some insect species which have yet to be used in livestock feeds and which have the potential for mass rearing. On this basis, the following species were selected: Tenebrio molitor, Zophbas morio, Naophoeta cinerea, Blaptica dubia, Gromphardhina portentosa, Periplaneta americana, Oxyhaloa duesta and Blatta lateralis. These species were reared at the Department of Animal Sciences of Stellenbosch University. With 60.34%, N. cinerea yielded the highest CP value, which is comparable to that of fishmeal. The protein value for the other species were comparable to that of soya oilcake meal, with values ranging from 43.13% to 55.28%. The amino acid profiles for G. portentosa, P. americana and B. lateralis related best to the ideal amino acid profile for broilers. The purpose of the second study was to evaluate the possible effects of mealworms (the larvae of T. molitor) and the larvae- and pre-pupae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) on gizzard erosion in broilers. These two species were selected since they were easy to acquire in the required volumes. Also, the information available on H. illucens mainly regards animal broiler production parameters, but not this specific animal factor. Results of the study indicate the following: The mealworms caused significant (P < 0.05) gizzard erosion, whereas the others did not. The erosion may have been due to the high histidine content of the mealworms, which may have been transformed into histamine thereby causing erosion. Histidine may have also been transformed into gizzerosine, a potent inducer of gizzard erosion, during the drying process. The erosion observed may have also been due to the presence and form of chitin in the mealworms. Chitin is structurally similar to fibre, which was presented in a coarse form. Coarse fibres have been shown to increase the acidity of gizzard contents, which may lead to gizzard erosion. In the third study the total tract digestibility for mealworms was evaluated and compared to values from studies on other species as well as that of soya oilcake meal and fishmeal. It was found that the dry matter (DM) digestibility for mealworm meal is similar to that of housefly larvae meal and housefly pupae meal, but lower than that of black soldier fly meal. The CP digestibility was similar to that of black soldier fly meal and soya oilcake meal, but higher than that of housefly larvae meal and housefly pupae meal. The coefficient of total tract digestibility (CTTD) values for methionine and threonine are similar to that of soya oilcake meal and fishmeal. The CTTD value for lysine, however, was lower than all other protein sources presented. The low digestibility value may be attributed to specific processing conditions, especially overheating. The effects of the inclusion of mealworm meal and black soldier fly larvae- and pre-pupae meal on layer production performance and egg quality characteristics were evaluated by comparing to a balanced control diet. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in average daily gain (ADG) between treatments. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the black soldier fly pre-pupae meal was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the other treatments. The egg weights for the control diet was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the treatment diets. There were however no significant differences between the other treatments. The yolk weights did not differ significantly between the treatments and control. The shell weight for the mealworm diet was significantly higher than that of the control and the black soldier fly larvae- and pre-pupae diets. The albumin weight and albumin height for the mealworm diet differed significantly from the control, although it did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from the rest. General results are in support of the use of these insects as protein in poultry feeds.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Insek proteïen in pluimveevoeding raak al hoe meer gewild in terme van navorsing. Die hoofdoel van hierdie proef was om na onverkende aspekte van insek proteïen te kyk, veral die rol wat dit speel in dierevoeding. Dit behels die volgende: evaluering van die chemiese samestelling spesifiek van geselekteerde insek spesies, moontlike newe effekte op spiermaag gesondheid, asook die verteerbaarheid daarvan en laastens die effek op lê-hen produksie en eier kwaliteit eienskappe. In die eerste studie was agt insek spesies geselekteer vir chemiese ontleding, nl. Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Naophoeta cinerea, Blaptica dubia, Gronphardhina portentosa, Periplaneta americana, Oxyhaloa duesta en Blatta lateralis. Tans word hierdie spesies nie in veevoere gebruik nie. Hierdie spesies toon ook die vermoë vir grootskaalse groot maak. Die resultate vir die studie is as volg: Die ru-proteïen (RP) inhoud van N. cinerea was die hoogste met 60.34%. Hierdie waarde kan met die van vismeel vergelyk word. Die RP waarde van die ander spesies (43.13 - 55.28%) kon met die van sojaboon meel vergelyk word. Die aminosuur profiel van G. portentosa, P. americana, en B. lateralis kon met die ideale aminosuur profiel vir braaikuikens vergelyk word. Die doel van die tweede studie was om insek spesies te evalueer vir moontlik newe effekte op spiermaag gesondheid, veral spiermaagerosie. Meelwurms en die larwes- en pre-papies van Hermetia illucens is vir hierdie studie gebruik. Die meelwurms het betekenisvolle (P < 0.05) spiermaag erosie veroorsaak, terwyl die H. illucens larwes en pre-papies geen erosie veroorsaak het nie. Die moontlike oorsaak van erosie is die hoë histidien inhoud van meelwurms. Histidien het ʼn neiging om na histamien te verander wat tot erosie in die spiermaag kan lei. Dit is ook moontlik, gedurende die drogingsproses, dat histidien in gizzerosien omgeskakel kon word. Gizzerosien is bekend as die oorsaak van spiermaag erosie in braaikuikens. Die teenwoordigheid en vorm van chitien in meelwurms kon ook ʼn bydraende faktor gewees het. Die bouvorm van chitien is soortgelyk aan die van vesel, wat in ʼn growwe vorm gevoer is. Dit is moontlik dat growwe vesel die pH van die spiermaag kan laat styg wat tot spiermaag erosie kan lei. In die volgende studie was die totale spysverteringskanaal verteerbaarheid van meelwurms geëvalueer. Waardes wat gevind was, is vergelyk met die van vorige studies op insekte asook die van vismeel en sojaboonmeel. Resultate toon aan dat die droë materiaal (DM) verteerbaarheid van meelwurms soortgelyk is aan die van huisvlieg larwe- en papie meel, met onderskeidelike waardes van 0.80, 0.81 en 0.8. Die ru-proteïen verteerbaarheid van die meelwurms was soortgelyk aan dit van H. illucens pre-papie meel en sojaboonmeel, maar hoër as dit van huisvlieg larwe- en papie meel, met waardes van 0.90, 0.90, 0.85, 0.69 en 0.79, onderskeidelik. Die verteerbaarheid van metionien en treonien is soortgelyk aan die van sojaboon meel en vismeel. Die totale spysverterings verteerbaarheid waarde vir lisien (0.74) was egter laer as al die ander proteïen bronne. Hierdie laer verteerbaarheid kan moontlik toegeskryf word aan spesifieke verwerkingsomstandighede, veral oorverhitting. In die finale studie, was die effek van meelwurms, H. illucens larwe en pre-papie meel as supplimentêre proteïenbron in lê-hen diëte geëvalueer. Deur middel van vergelyking met ʼn kontrole, was daar spesifiek gefokus op lê-hen produksie en eier kwaliteit eienskappe. Daar was geen betekenisvolle (P < 0.05) verskille in gemiddelde daaglikse toename tussen behandelings en kontrole nie. Die voeromsettingsverhouding vir die H. illucens pre-papie meel was betekenisvolle (P < 0.05) laer as die van die ander behandelings en kontrole. Die eier gewigte van die kontrole was betekenisvol (P < 0.05) laer as die van die ander behandelings. Daar was ook geen betekenisvolle (P < 0.05) verskille in eiergeel gewigte tussen die behandeligs en kontrole. Die dop gewigte van die meelwurms was betekenisvol (P < 0.05) hoër as die van die kontrole en ander behandelings. Die albumien gewigte en hoogte vir die meelwurm dieet het betekenisvol (P < 0.05) verskil van die kontrole, maar het nie betekenisvol (P < 0.05t) van die ander behandelings verskil nie.

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