Factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from South African game species

Neethling, Jeannine (2016-03)

Thesis (PhD (Food Sc))--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, wild and free-living animal species that are dependent on the natural vegetation present in their habitat as food source, are referred to as ‘game species’. Game species are utilised for live animal sales, trophy hunting, non-trophy recreational hunting and game meat production. The latter is of economic importance, as the export of game meat is a very lucrative industry for South Africa. However, only small quantities of fresh game meat is sold locally in South Africa, which is attributable to a lack of scientific information on the chemical composition and sensory quality of game meat that is required to enable proper marketing of game meat products. Game meat is derived from female and male animals of various species, located throughout southern Africa. However, differences in the dietary regimes of game species between farm locations, in addition to species and gender differences could influence the composition and sensory quality of game meat. Differences in the fatty acid content and volatile compound profile could influence the aroma and flavour of meat, yet no research exists that has established the volatile compound profile of South African game meat. The volatile compound profile of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of commonly consumed game species (springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis; blesbok, Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi; gemsbok, Oryx gazella; impala, Aepyceros melampus; red hartebeest, Alcelaphus caama; and kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from various farm locations was mainly lipid-derived, containing compounds such as aldehydes, alcohols and 2-pentylfuran. Farm location and gender had a significant influence on the fatty acid content and volatile compound profile of springbok and blesbok meat. Furthermore, the fatty acid content and volatile compound profile of game meat differed significantly between the six species, while gender differences were more species-specific. Descriptive sensory analysis was used to establish the sensory profile of game meat in this study. The latter, in addition to physical measurements (thaw and cooking loss percentage, ultimate pH and Warner-Bratzler shear force) and the proximate composition (moisture, protein, intramuscular lipid and ash) were used to establish the sensory quality of game meat derived from different farm locations, species and genders. Farm location had a significant influence on the sensory quality of springbok meat, while this was not evident for blesbok meat. Selected physical, proximate and sensory attributes differed significantly between the six game species, however, when conducting multivariate analyses using all of the sensory attributes as variables it is clear that springbok meat illustrated a prominent gamey sensory profile and thus associated with a different set of sensory attributes than the other five game species. This study also indicated that gender differences in the sensory quality of game meat are more species-specific. It is therefore recommended that the meat industry should take farm location (for springbok and not blesbok) and species into account during the marketing of game meat. As the influence of gender on the sensory profile of the game meat from the selected species in this study was of minor importance, it is recommended that this factor not be considered during the marketing of game meat derived from these six game species. However, the magnitude of the influence of species and gender on the sensory quality of game meat could change when other factors such as season and farm location come into play

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Suid-Afrika word die spesies wat wild, vrylopend en afhanklik van die natuurlike plantegroei in hulle habitat as voedselbron is, verwys na as ‘wild’. Wild word benut vir lewendige verkope, trofeejag, jag vir plesier (biltongjagter) en wildsvleisproduksie. Laasgenoemde is van groot ekonomiese waarde, aangesien die uitvoer van wildsvleis ʼn baie winsgewende industrie is in Suid-Afrika. Ongelukkig, as gevolg van ʼn tekort aan wetenskaplike inligting oor die chemiese samestelling en die sensoriese kwaliteit van wildsvleis, is vars wildsvleis nie so geredelik beskikbaar in Suid-Afrika nie; wat die bemarking daarvan negatief beïnvloed. Vroulike en manlike diere vanaf verskeie spesies en van regoor suider Afrika word benut vir wildvleisproduksie. Die samestelling en sensoriese kwaliteit van vleis kan beïnvloed word deur verskille in die dieet van wildspesies tussen plase, asook deur verskille tussen spesies en geslagte. Verder kan die aroma en geur van vleis beïnvloed word deur die vetsuurinhoud en vlugtige komponente profiel. Ongelukkig bestaan daar geen navorsing wat al die vlugtige komponente profiel van Suid-Afrikaanse wildsvleis vasgestel het nie. Die vlugtige komponente profiel van die longissimus thoracis et lumborum spier vanaf verskeie algemeen benutte wildspesies (springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis; blesbok, Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi; gemsbok, Oryx gazella; rooibok, Aepyceros melampus; rooihartebees, Alcelaphus caama; en koedoe, Tragelaphus strepsiceros) geoes van verskeie plaasliggings, was hoofsaaklik afgelei van lipiede en het komponente soos aldehiede, alkohole en 2-pentielfuraan bevat. Die vetsuurinhoud en vlugtige komponente profiel van springbok- en blesbokvleis was betekenisvol beïnvloed deur plaasligging en geslag. Verder het die vetsuurinhoud en vlugtige komponente profiel van wildsvleis betekenisvol verskil tussen die ses spesies, maar die invloed van geslag op laasgenoemde was spesies-spesifiek. Die sensoriese profiel van wildsvleis is bepaal deur ʼn beskrywende sensoriese analitiese metode. Die algehele sensoriese kwaliteit van wildsvleis is bepaal deur die sensoriese profiel, fisiese kwaliteit (ontdooi- en kookverlies persentasie, finale pH en Warner-Bratzler instrumentele taaiheid) en die benaderde chemiese samestelling (vog, proteïen, intramuskulêre lipiede en as) vas te stel. Die sensoriese kwaliteit van springbokvleis is betekenisvol beïnvloed deur plaasligging, maar laasgenoemde faktor het nie ʼn betekenisvolle invloed op blesbokvleis gehad nie. Verskeie fisiese kwaliteit-, benaderde chemiese samestelling en sensoriese eienskappe was betekenisvol verskillend tussen die vleis verkry vanaf die ses wildspesies. Die gebruik van meerveranderlike analises, met alle sensoriese eienskappe ingesluit as veranderlikes, het getoon dat springbokvleis ʼn prominente ‘wilde’ sensoriese profiel het en dus geassosieer was met ʼn ander stel sensoriese eienskappe, in vergelyking met die vyf ander wildspesies. Die invloed van geslag op die sensoriese kwaliteit van wildsvleis vanaf die ses wildspesies was ook meer spesies-spesifiek. Die vleisindustrie word dus aangeraai om plaasligging (vir springbok, maar nie vir blesbok nie) en spesie in ag te neem met die bemarking van wildsvleis. Verder was die invloed van geslag op die sensoriese profiel van wildsvleis minimaal en word daar aangeraai dat geslag nie in ag geneem word met die bemarking van wildsvleis soos verkry vanaf die ses wildspesies nie; alhoewel die invloed van spesie en geslag op die sensoriese kwaliteit van wildsvleis kan verander indien ander faktore soos bv. seisoen en plaasligging in ag geneem word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98493
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