A motivational perspective on the user acceptance of social media

Nelmapius, Albert Hugo (2016-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of social media as a unique marketing communication tool to engage with a new age of consumers has become an essential element of any organisation's strategic planning. On social media sites, consumers are engaging with and producing information, as opposed to traditional media where the marketer is in control of the media message content and information dissemination. The challenge for marketers in this new market communication context is to create a venue for conversation with the customer without appearing to control the conversation. In order for the marketer to be this invisible influencer, marketers need to understand the dynamic perceptions, motivations and uses of social network sites. User acceptance theories can be a valuable framework for exploring human behaviour in this computer-mediated environment. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the intentions of users and non-users of social network sites to either continue using social network sites or to use social network sites in the future, by using a comprehensive, decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour. Due to the size and complexity of the decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour, the antecedents to the Intention to use social network sites were divided into two sub-models, namely motivators and barriers to social network sites usage. In addition to the antecedent motivators and barriers, the gratifications sought from social network usage were also explored, to identify the reasons for continued social network sites usage or non-usage. This choice of continued usage of or non-usage of social network sites by both user and non-user groups, was further investigated, using a logistical regression analysis, to quantify the probability of group. The demographical attributes of the users of social network sites with regard to certain specific social network site use, were also investigated. The study utilised a questionnaire with closed-ended questions to collect demographical information of the respondents. A seven-point Likert scale was selected as the appropriate measurement scale, taking into consideration that the variables under investigation were latent and, therefore, not directly observable. The Likert scaled questionnaire was used to draw a quota sample of 307 users of Facebook and 337 non-users of Facebook. The data was analysed using the statistical computer programmes LISREL 8.80, AMOS 18 and SPSS 21. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders with regard to the reported number of years’ membership of Facebook, number of hours spent on Facebook per week, the number of Facebook visits per week and the number of Facebook friends. A statistically significant difference did exist, however, between males and females, with regard to the number of hours spent on Facebook per week. The differences among the age categories showed a statistically significant difference only in relation to the number of the Facebook friends’ dimension, with the age group 15-25 having statistically significantly more friends than the older age categories. The results denoted that three of the potential barriers of Facebook usage, namely Dispositional trust, Internet self-efficacy and Psychological risk, had the same influence on the intention of individuals to use Facebook among both users and non-users of Facebook. These constructs are an intrinsic, dispositional part of the character and abilities of an individual and suggest that the reason for the lack of use by non-users of Facebook is not due to systematic differences, in the characteristics between the users and non-users of Facebook. The one exception is Privacy risk, which was found to be a statistically significant barrier to Facebook usage by Facebook non-users only and represents an important finding for social media marketers, as it serves as evidence that privacy concerns do influence users, to such an extent that they will choose not to use technology as a result of these concerns. In a similar manner to the barriers to Facebook use, the results indicated that the motivators of Facebook usage (Perceived enjoyment, Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Need for cognition and Susceptibility to norm influence) had the exact same influence on the Intention to use Facebook for both users and non-users of Facebook. The motivators of Facebook were all external influences, except for the Need to belong (intrinsic), which was found to be an insignificant predictor of Facebook usage. This finding implies that there is no difference in the external influences exerted on both users and non-users of social network sites and, therefore, external influences are not the cause of the lack of use of social network sites by non-users. The results showed significant statistical differences between the gratifications sought by Facebook usage between the users and non-users of Facebook. The results further indicated a greater Continued intention to use Facebook by the users of Facebook compared to non-users in terms of gratifications sought. Based on these findings and the results of the motivators and barriers of Facebook usage, it is concluded that non-users’ lack of social network site usage is not as a result of systematic dispositional difference with users or because of differing external influences, but rather due to the fact that non-users of social network sites are not motivated sufficiently by specific gratifications created by social network site usage. The results for specific gratifications, rather than dispositional characteristics or external influences, thus, has a greater influence on non-users’ lack of participation in social network sites. This could suggest that specific gratifications are the reason for the usage of social network site by users of these sites. Marketers, therefore, need to ensure that any marketing offerings should address the specific gratifications needs of their target market, in order to attract more traffic to their social network sites. An important objective of this study was to compare users of Facebook with the non-users, to establish whether specific dispositional, situational or outcome variables were significant in influencing group membership. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess which variables had the biggest influence on group membership. The results showed that the variables: specific Age categories, Perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness, Psychological risk, Perceived enjoyment and Susceptibility to norm influence were all significant predictors of Facebook usage. However, the variables gender, the age categories 26-35 years and 36-45 years, Dispositional trust, Internet self-efficacy, Need for cognition and Privacy risk were not statistically significant predictors of group membership. This research provides marketers with a full range of social network site perceptions to consider, so they can devise customised, multi-layered marketing offerings to encourage the use of social network sites for e-Commerce.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sosiale media as 'n unieke bemarkingskommunikasie-instrument om ‘n nuwe generasie verbruikers te benader het 'n noodsaaklike element van strategiese beplanning vir alle organisasies geword. Die verbruikers op sosiale media webwerwe, is verantwoordelik vir die vervaardiging en gebruik van inligting, wat fundamenteel verskil van die tradisionele media, waar die bemarker in beheer is van die media boodskap inhoud en inligtingverspreiding. Die uitdaging vir bemarkers in hierdie nuwe bemarkingskommunikasiekonteks is om die geleentheid vir dialoog met die kliënt te skep, sonder om die indruk te skep dat hulle die dialoog probeer beïnvloed. Ten einde vir die bemarker om hierdie onsigbare invloed uit te oefen, moet hulle die dinamiese persepsies, motiverings en gebruike van sosiale netwerk webwerwe verstaan. Gebruikeraanvaardingsteorieë kan 'n waardevolle raamwerk verskaf om menslike gedrag in hierdie rekenaar- bemiddelde omgewing te ondersoek. Die primêre doel van hierdie studie was om die voornemens van die gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van sosiale netwerke te ondersoek om óf voort te gaan om sosiale netwerke te gebruik of om in die toekoms sosiale netwerke te begin gebruik, deur 'n omvattende gedekonstrueerde Teorie van Beplande Gedrag te gebruik. As gevolg van die grootte en kompleksiteit van die gedekonstrueerde Teorie van Beplande Gedrag, is die voorlopers om die bedoeling om sosiale netwerk gebruik verdeel in twee sub-modelle, naamlik motiveerders en hindernisse tot sosiale netwerkgebruik. Benewens die voorafgaande motiveerders en hindernisse, is die belonings wat spruit uit sosiale netwerkgebruik ook ondersoek, om die redes vir die voortgesette gebruik ,al dan nie, van sosiale netwerke te identifiseer. Hierdie keuse van voortgesette gebruik ,al dan nie, van sosiale netwerke deur beide die gebruiker- en nie-gebruikersgroepe, is verder ondersoek, met behulp van 'n logistieke regressie-analise, om die waarskynlikheid dat nie-gebruikers sal besluit om sosiale netwerke te begin gebruik te kwantifiseer. Die demografiese eienskappe van die gebruikers van die sosiale netwerk webwerwe met betrekking tot sekere spesifieke gebruike van sosiale netwerk webwerwe, is ook ondersoek. Die studie benut 'n vraelys met geslote-einde vrae om demografiese inligting van die respondente in te samel. 'n Sewe-punt Likertskaal is gekies as die toepaslike meting- skaal, aangesien die veranderlikes wat ondersoek word latent is en dus nie direk waarneembaar is nie. Die Likertskaal vraelys is gebruik om 'n kwota monster van 307 gebruikers van Facebook en 337 nie-gebruikers van Facebook te trek. Die data is ontleed met behulp van die statistiese rekenaarprogramme LISREL 8,80, AMOS 18 en SPSS 21 Die resultate dui daarop dat daar geen statisties beduidende verskil tussen die geslagte ten opsigte van die aantal jare lidmaatskap van Facebook, aantal ure gespandeer op Facebook per week, die aantal Facebook besoeke per week en die aantal Facebook vriende is nie. ‘n Statisties betekenisvolle verskil bestaan wel tussen mans en vrouens met betrekking tot die aantal ure gespandeer op Facebook per week. Die verskille tussen die ouderdomskategorieë het 'n statisties beduidende verskil aangedui slegs in verband met die aantal Facebook-vriende dimensie, met die ouderdomsgroep 15-25 wat statisties beduidend meer vriende as die ouer ouderdomsgroepe het. Die resultate dui aan dat drie van die potensiële struikelblokke van Facebook gebruik naamlik Disposisionele vertroue, Internet selfdoeltreffendheid en Sielkundige risiko ‘n invloed uitoefen op die bedoeling van beide gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van Facebook om Facebook te gebruik. Hierdie konstrukte is 'n intrinsieke, disposisionele deel van die karakter en vermoëns van 'n individu en dui daarop dat die rede hoekom nie-gebruikers van Facebook nie Facebook gebruik nie, is nie as gevolg van sistematiese verskille in die eienskappe tussen die gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van Facebook nie. Die enigste uitsondering is Privaatheidrisiko, wat bevind is om 'n statisties beduidende struikelblok tot Facebook gebruik te wees slegs vir nie-gebruikers van Facebook. Hierdie verteenwoordig 'n belangrike bevinding vir sosiale mediabemarkers, want dit dien as 'n bewys dat kommer oor privaatheid gebruikers wel beïnvloed, tot so 'n mate dat hulle sal kies om tegnologie nie te gebruik nie, as 'n gevolg van hierdie bekommernis. In 'n soortgelyke wyse as die hindernisse van Facebookgebruik, het die resultate getoon dat die motiveerders van Facebookgebruik (Waargenome genot Waargenome nut, Waargenome gemak van gebruik, Behoefte aan kognisie en Vatbaarheid vir norminvloed), presies dieselfde invloed op die voorneme gehad het om Facebook te gebruik, vir beide gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van Facebook. Die motiveerders van Facebook was almal eksterne invloede, behalwe vir die Behoefte om te behoort (intrinsiek), wat bevind is om 'n onbeduidende bepaler van Facebook gebruik te wees. Hierdie bevinding impliseer dat daar geen verskil in die eksterne invloede is wat uitgeoefen word op beide gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van sosiale netwerke nie; daarom is eksterne invloede nie die oorsaak vir die gebrek aan die gebruik van sosiale netwerke deur nie-gebruikers nie. Die resultate toon beduidende statistiese verskille tussen die beloningsverlang as gevolg van Facebook gebruik tussen die gebruikers en nie-gebruikers van Facebook. Die resultate het verder aangedui dat 'n groter Voortgesette voorneme om Facebook te gebruik deur die gebruikers van Facebook bestaan in vergelyking met nie-gebruikers in terme van die belonings deur hulle verlang. Op grond van hierdie bevindinge en die resultate van die motiveerders en hindernisse van Facebook gebruik, kan tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat 'n gebrek aan sosiale netwerk webwerfgebruik deur nie-gebruikers nie is as gevolg van stelselmatige disposisionele verskille met gebruikers of as gevolg van verskillende eksterne invloede nie, maar eerder as gevolg van die feit dat nie-gebruikers van sosiale netwerke nie voldoende gemotiveer word deur spesifieke belonings geskep deur sosiale netwerkwebwerwe nie. Die resultate vir die spesifieke belonings, eerder as disposisionele eienskappe of eksterne invloede, het 'n groter invloed op die gebrek aan deelname aan sosiale netwerke vir nie-gebruikers. Dit kan daarop dui dat spesifieke belonings die rede is vir die gebruik van sosiale netwerkwerwe deur gebruikers van hierdie webwerwe. Bemarkers moet daarom verseker dat enige bemarkingsaanbiedinge die spesifieke belonings en behoeftes van hul teikenmark moet aanspreek ten einde meer verkeer te lok na hul sosiale netwerkwebwerwe. ‘n Belangrike doelwit van hierdie studie was om die gebruikers van Facebook te vergelyk met die nie-gebruikers, om vas te stel of spesifieke disposisionele-, situasionele- of uitkomsveranderlikes ‘n beduidende invloed op groeplidmaatskap het. ‘n Logistieke regressie-analise is gebruik om te bepaal watter veranderlikes die grootste invloed op groeplidmaatskap het. Die resultate het getoon dat die veranderlikes: Spesifieke ouderdomsgroepe, Waargenome gemak van gebruik, Waargenome nut, Sielkundige risiko, Waargenome genot en Vatbaarheid vir norm invloed almal beduidende bepalers van Facebook gebruik was. Die veranderlikes geslag, ouderdom kategorieë 26-35 jaar en 36-45 jaar, Disposisionele trust, Internet selfdoeltreffendheid, Behoefte aan kognisie en Privaatheid risiko nie statisties beduidende voorspellers van groeplidmaatskap was nie. Hierdie navorsing bied bemarkers 'n volle reeks van sosiale netwerk webwerfpersepsies om te oorweeg, sodat hulle persoonlike, veelvlakkige bemarking aanbiedinge kan saamstel om die gebruik van sosiale network webwerwe vir e-handel aan te moedig.

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