The training, role and challenges of female peacekeepers : experiences of peacekeepers from the Zambia Police Service and the Zambia Army

Mubita, Fredrick (2016-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the 1990s, there has been a shift from state security to human security, which gave rise to a more people-centred approach to security. Within this context, feminist scholars started to advocate for a more gendered dimension to human security and for the expanded role of women in peace processes, including peacekeeping. This was associated with the realisation that war affects men and women differently, and having more women in the military and in peacekeeping is not only necessary, but essential to improve the operational effectiveness of the peacekeeping mission. Women are said to make a number of contributions to peacekeeping such as increasing the ability to address Sexually Gender Based Violence (SGBV); improve access to local population; improvement in gathering community based intelligence; and enhancing gender equality and non -discrimination. While this may be the case, women face a number of challenges that hinder them from contributing effectively to peacekeeping operations (PKOs), and many of these claims are not substantiated with empirical evidence. This study interrogates these claims by examining the training, role and challenges women peacekeepers face in order to see whether they are making a unique contribution to peacekeeping. The main research question for this study is: How are women in the Zambia Police and military prepared for peacekeeping missions, in what roles are they typically utilised, and what challenges do they face? To begin with, the recruitment of women in the Zambia Army and Zambia Police are based on principles of gender equality without consideration of gender difference. Hence women are not recruited on the basis of specific female traits. Once recruited women are socialised into the military in the same way as men. The culture of police and military institution is masculine and women are expected to acquire these traits, which in essence dilutes femininity. The persistence of patriarchy in host countries also presents a real challenge in as far as the utilisation of women peacekeepers is concerned in the sense that the presence of female peacekeepers and the message they carry do not help to change the gender relations in the host country. Added to this, there are security concerns in the host states that limit the contributions that female peacekeepers can make to peacekeeping. Further, the inadequate training that female peacekeepers undergo inhibits the contributions that women can make to PKOs. In this regard, important differences between military and police personnel emerge. It is clear that in general, peacekeepers from the police are more sensitive to gender issues than the military peacekeepers. This is due to the nature of their roles and functions. However women in both these security services face a number of challenges that affect their optimal utilisation. In order to overcome these challenges this study recommends that the military and the police need to improve gender training for peacekeepers, should value f

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedert die 1990's was daar 'n verskuiwing van menslike veiligheid wat aanleiding gegee het tot 'n meer mensgesentreerde benadering tot sekuriteit. Binne hierdie konteks, het feministe begin om te pleit vir 'n meer geslagsbenadering tot menslike veiligheid en vir die uitgebreide rol van vroue in vredesprosesse, insluitende vredesoperasies. Dit het gepaard gegaan met die besef dat oorlog mans en vroue verskillend raak en dat meer vroue in die weermag en in vredesoperasies nie net nodig is nie, maar noodsaaklik is om die operasionele doeltreffendheid van die vredesending te verbeter. Daar is volhou dat vroue 'n aantal bydraes tot vredesoperasies maak soos die verhoging van die vermoë om seksueel geslagsgebaseerde geweld (SGBV) aan te spreek; verbeterde toegang tot die plaaslike bevolkings; verbeterde versameling van gemeenskapsgebaseerde intelligensie; en die verbetering van geslagsgelykheid en vermindering van diskriminasie. Terwyl dit die geval mag wees, is daar verskeie uitdagings wat vroue verhinder om doeltreffend bydraes tot vredesoperasies (VOs) te lewer en baie van hierdie eise is nie gestaaf met empiriese bewyse nie. Hierdie studie ondervra hierdie eise deur ondersoek in tel stel in verband met die opleiding, rol en uitdagings wat vroue in die gesig staar in vredesmagte en om te sien of hulle wel 'n unieke bydrae tot vredesoperasies maak. Om mee te begin, wys die studie uit dat die werwing van vroue vir die Zambiese Leer en Zambiese polisie gebaseer is op die beginsels van geslagsgelykheid, sonder inagneming van geslagverskille. Vroue word nie gewerf op grond van spesifieke vroulike eienskappe nie. Hierna word vroue gesosialiseer in die weermag in die dieselfde manier as mans. Die kultuur van beide die polisie en instellings is manlik en vroue word verwag om hierdie eienskappe aan te neem wat ten wese vroulikheid verskraal. Die volharding van patriargie in gasheerlande bied ook 'n groot uitdaging in so ver dit die benutting van vroue vredesmagte betref. Die teenwoordigheid van vroulike vredesmagte en die boodskap wat hulle dra, het min impak op die geslag verhoudings in die gasheerland. Bykomend hiertoe is daar bekommernis oor die veiligheid van vroue in vredesoperasies in die gasheer lande, wat hul bydraes verder beperk. Verder, die onvoldoende opleiding wat vroulike vredesmagte ondergaan, inhibeer die bydraes wat vroue kan maak vir vredesoperasies. In hierdie verband, is daar belangrike verskille tussen die militêre en polisie personeel. Dit is duidelik dat in die algemeen vredesmagte van die polisie meer sensitief vir geslagskwessies is as die militêre vredesmagte. Dit is as gevolg van die aard van hul rolle en funksies. Nieteenstaande is daar uitdagings wat vroue in albei hierdie sekuriteit dienste in die gesig staar en wat hul optimale benutting beïnvloed. Ten einde hierdie uitdagings aan te spreek, beveel hierdie studie aan dat beide die weermag en die polisie geslag opleiding vir vredesmagte verbeter, dat die waarde van die vroulike eienskappe erken word en dat 'n omgewing wat bevorderlik is vir vroue geskep word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98453
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