Die identifisering, beskrywing en riglyne vir die ontwikkeling van veerkragtigheidskenmerke in gesinne waarvan ʼn ouer alkohol misbruik: ʼn gesinsperspektief

van den Berg, Estelle (2016-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2016

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide and in South Africa which not only affects individuals, but families and communities as well. In South Africa, the Western Cape is the province with the highest prevalence of alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is also the most prevalent amongst the coloured population group and in rural areas. Despite the potentially negative impact that parental alcohol abuse can have on families, some families are capable of coping with and overcoming this adversity. Families who have the ability to withstand and rebound from disruptive life challenges, such as when a parent in the family abuses alcohol, are referred to as resilient families. The main objective of this investigation was to determine which family characteristics can be associated with positive adaptation in families in which a parent abuses alcohol in a rural area of the Western Cape among the coloured population, based on family membersʼ views. The secondary objective of this investigation was to provide guidelines based on family membersʼ perspectives for how these characteristics can be developed in order to help families cope with the crisis of alcohol abuse. Although family resilience studies regarding parental alcohol abuse were found in the international literature, there is a lack of similar studies in South Africa. The lack of local studies that are qualitative in nature, that focus on family resilience rather than individual resilience and where the parent is the family member that abuses alcohol, allows for an investigation in which the unique factors of this group of participants can be identified and described. Participants were 18 families of which one or both parents had been abusing alcohol for six months or longer. In 15 cases, the mother acted as the representative of the family, and in one case the father. In two cases both the mother and a daughter who still lives with them at home participated on behalf of the family. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. The results are presented in four sections, namely participants’ descriptions of how their families are characterised, participants’ experiences of the negative effect of alcohol abuse, participants’ descriptions of family resilience characteristics, and participants’ suggestions for guidelines for the development of an intervention programme for families with parental alcohol abuse. Themes that related to participants’ descriptions of how their families are characterised were: alcohol abuse is at its worst over weekends and in the month of December; other family members are against alcohol abuse; domestic violence; more than one family member abuses alcohol; only the parent that abuses alcohol can help him-/herself; the parent has been abusing alcohol his/her whole life and has had relapses; the parent does not want to admit the problem or the severity of the problem; and stressors. Themes that related to participants’ experiences of the negative effect of alcohol abuse were the negative effects of alcohol abuse on finances, the community, the family, health, the marriage, children and careers. Themes that related to participants’ descriptions of family resilience factors included family problem-solving communication, family time and routines, religion, support from community resources, social support, and other factors. Themes that related to participants’ suggestions for guidelines for the development of an intervention programme were: to emphasise the importance of the youth; to involve families with parental alcohol abuse in the community; to link the programme to a religious component; to help people to not start drinking, drink less or stop drinking; to make the intervention programme prolonged and continuous; as well as to receive rehabilitation, counselling or therapy. Based on the identified resilience characteristics and advice to other families, suggestions are made for how these factors can be implemented in order to develop a family resilience intervention programme for families with parental alcohol abuse.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Alkoholmisbruik is ʼn reuse probleem wêreldwyd en in Suid-Afrika wat nie net individue nie, maar noodwendig ook gesinne en gemeenskappe affekteer. In Suid-Afrika is die Wes-Kaap die provinsie met die hoogste voorkoms van alkoholmisbruik. Alkoholmisbruik kom ook die meeste voor onder die bruin bevolkingsgroep en in die platteland. Ten spyte van die potensiële negatiewe impak wat ouerlike alkoholmisbruik op gesinne kan hê, is sommige gesinne daartoe in staat om hierdie teenspoed te verwerk en suksesvol daarby aan te pas. Gesinne wat oor die vermoë beskik om weerstand te bied teen en te herstel ná ontwrigtende lewensuitdagings, soos wanneer ʼn ouer in die gesin alkohol misbruik, word as veerkragtige gesinne beskou. Die hoofdoelstelling van hierdie ondersoek was om op grond van gesinslede se sienings vas te stel watter gesinskenmerke geassosieer kan word met goeie aanpassing van gesinne waarvan ʼn ouer alkohol misbruik onder die bruin bevolkingsgroep in die Wes-Kaapse platteland. Die sekondêre doelstelling van hierdie ondersoek was om riglyne wat gebaseer is op gesinslede se perspektiewe te verskaf oor hoe hierdie kenmerke ontwikkel kan word om gesinne te help om die krisis van alkoholmisbruik te hanteer. Alhoewel gesinsveerkragtigheidstudies in verband met ʼn ouer wat alkohol misbruik in die internasionale literatuur gevind is, is daar ʼn gebrek aan soortgelyke ondersoeke in Suid-Afrika. Die tekort aan plaaslike studies wat kwalitatief van aard is en op gesinsveerkragtigheid eerder as individuele veerkragtigheid fokus, en waar die ouer die gesinslid is wat alkohol misbruik, het ruimte gelaat vir ʼn ondersoek waarin die unieke gesinsfaktore van hierdie deelnemende gesinne geïdentifiseer en beskryf kon word. Deelnemers was 18 gesinne waarvan een of albei ouers vir ses maande of langer alkohol misbruik. In 15 gevalle het die ma as verteenwoordiger van die gesin opgetree, en in een geval die pa. In twee gevalle het beide die ma en ʼn dogter wat by hulle in die huis woon, namens die gesinne aan die ondersoek deelgeneem. Data is deur middel van semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude ingesamel en tematies ontleed. Die resultate word in vier afdelings aangebied, naamlik deelnemers se beskrywings van waardeur hul gesinne gekenmerk word, deelnemers se ervarings van die negatiewe effek van alkoholmisbruik, deelnemers se beskrywings van gesinsveerkragtigheidsfaktore en deelnemers se voorstelle vir riglyne vir die ontwikkeling van ʼn gesinsintervensieprogram vir gesinne waarvan ʼn ouer alkohol misbruik. Temas wat verband hou met deelnemers se beskrywings van waardeur hul gesinne gekenmerk word was: alkoholmisbruik is die ergste oor naweke en Desembermaande; ander gesinslede is teen alkoholmisbruik; huishoudelike geweld; meer as een familielid misbruik alkohol; net die ouer wat alkohol misbruik kan hom-/haarself help; die ouer misbruik sy/haar lewe lank alkohol en het al terugvalle beleef; die ouer(s) wat alkohol misbruik wil nie die probleem of omvang daarvan erken nie; en stressors. Temas wat verband hou met deelnemers se ervarings van die negatiewe effek van alkoholmisbruik was die negatiewe effek van alkoholmisbruik op finansies, die gemeenskap, die gesin, gesondheid, die huwelik, kinders en loopbane. Temas wat verband hou met deelnemers se beskrywings van gesinsveerkragtigheidsfaktore het ingesluit gesinsprobleemoplossingskommunikasie, gesinstyd en roetines, godsdiens, die ondersteuning van gemeenskapshulpbronne, sosiale ondersteuning, en ander faktore. Temas wat verband hou met deelnemers se voorstelle vir riglyne vir die ontwikkeling van ʼn intervensieprogram was om die belangrikheid van die jeug te beklemtoon; om gesinne waarvan ʼn ouer alkohol misbruik by die gemeenskap te betrek; om die program aan ʼn geestelike komponent te koppel; om mense te help om nie te begin drink nie, minder te drink of op te hou drink; om die intervensieprogram langdurig en deurlopend te maak; asook om rehabilitasie, berading of terapie te ontvang.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98378
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