Institutional and organisational arrangements for consumer-oriented community-based aquaculture in South Africa

Njokweni, Gugu (2015-12)

Thesis (MComm)—Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the organisational and institutional arrangements for sustainable consumer-oriented community-based aquaculture in Hamburg, in the Eastern Cape, and Camdeboo and Saldanha Bay, both in the Western Cape. Without these factors the development of aquaculture will be impossible or unsustainable. The investigation will help in revealing whether markets exist or can be created, the required skills and investment, and the appropriate institutional arrangements. Two major research strategies were used, namely qualitative methods and case studies. The results revealed that, in all three case studies, the products were not exported and had different target markets and marketing objectives. There was a potential market for some of the products overseas. Leading pioneering firms, such as those that have developed the technologies for aquaculture, control the value chain by setting, monitoring and enforcing the parameters under which other value chain members operate. The results further showed that, in all three case studies, the beneficiaries had some of form of schooling; some had matric, while others had lower levels of education. In some scenarios, Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) training was offered, which combines aquaculture and life skills. Furthermore, unlike with kob, farming of species such as mussel, oyster and catfish did not require such onerously high technical skills and monitoring of parameters. There is no real need for high levels of education in the farming of these three species and, in most cases, people with less than matric are trained in the various aspects of fish farming on the job. Aquaculture appears to be a very capital-intensive industry. Apart from the capital investments, operational expenses have to be incurred, even during the development phase. The absence of clear policy frameworks and legislation results in contradictory messages. Choosing the type of business ownership may depend on many factors such as financing, admin costs, tax implications, insolvency, business size and continuity. The implication of the results of this study for community-based aquaculture is that investment from the public sector and private sector is required, both in terms of capital infrastructure and operational costs. Communities should start with simpler forms of aquaculture, such as oyster and mussel farming. Kob farming, on the other hand, requires high technical skill. In all cases, the approaches initially require managerial, business and technical support and handholding for community empowerment groups. When the development is in its infancy, community-based aquaculture projects need to link and create distribution agencies that deal with marketing and distribution.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die organisatoriese en institusionele reëlings te ondersoek vir volhoubare verbruikersgerigte gemeenskapsgebaseerde akwakultuur in Hamburg, in die Oos-Kaap, en die Kamdeboo en Saldanhabaai, in die Wes-Kaap. Sonder hierdie faktore is die ontwikkeling van akwakultuur onmoontlik of nvolhoubaar. Die ondersoek sal help om te bepaal of markte bestaan of geskep kan word, en watter vaardighede, investering en institusionele reëlings vereis word. Twee groot navorsingstrategieë is gebruik, naamlik kwalitatiewe metodes en gevallestudies. Die resultate van al drie gevallestudies het getoon dat die produkte nie uitgevoer word nie en dat daar verskillende teikenmarkte en bemarkingsdoelwitte vir die produkte is. Vir van die produkte is daar ʼn potensiële oorsese mark. Toonaangewende maatskappye soos dié wat tegnologie vir akwakultuur ontwikkel het, beheer die waardeketting deur die opstel, monitering en handhawing van die parameters waarvolgens ander lede van die waardeketting funksioneer. Verder het die resultate getoon dat die begunstigdes in al drie gevallestudies een of ander vorm van skoolopleiding gehad het; sommige het matriek gehad terwyl ander laer vlakke van skoolopleiding voltooi het. In sommige gevalle is Adult Basic Education and Training(ABET)-opleiding aangebied, waar akwakultuur en lewensvaardighede gekombineer is. Verder, in teenstelling met die kabeljoubedryf, vereis die teelt van spesies soos mossels, oesters en babers nie sulke gespesialiseerde tegniese vaardighede en die noukeurige monitering van parameters nie. Daar is geen werklike behoefte vir hoë vlakke van onderwys vir boerdery met laasgenoemde drie spesies nie en in die meeste gevalle ondergaan mense met minder as matriek indiensopleiding in die verskillende aspekte van visboerdery. Verder blyk akwakultuur 'n kapitaalintensiewe bedryf te wees. Afgesien van die kapitale belegging moet operasionele uitgawes aangegaan word, selfs in die ontwikkelingsfase. Die afwesigheid van duidelike beleidsraamwerke en wetgewing gee aanleiding tot teenstrydige boodskappe. Die keuse van die soort onderneming kan afhang van baie faktore, wat finansiering, administratiewe koste, belastingimplikasies, insolvensie, ondernemingsgrootte en kontinuïteit insluit. Die implikasie van die resultate van hierdie studie vir gemeenskapsgebaseerde akwakultuur is dat hoë investering vereis word, beide in terme van kapitaalinfrastruktuur en bedryfskoste. Gemeenskappe moet eers met eenvoudiger vorme van akwakultuur, soos oester- en mosselboerdery, wegspring. Kabeljou, aan die ander kant, vereis hoë tegniese vaardigheid. In alle gevalle vereis die benaderings aanvanklike bestuurs-, besigheids- en tegniese ondersteuning en daadwerklike bystand vir gemeenskapsbemagtigingsgroepe. Terwyl die ontwikkeling in sy kinderskoene is, moet gemeenskapsgebaseerde akwakultuurprojekte verspreidingsagentskappe skep en met sulke agentskappe skakel om bemarking en verspreiding te hanteer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98123
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