The use of an oregano oil extract as feed-addictive for Jersey cows grazing on ryegrass pasture in spring

Moller, Zanmari (2015-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Monensin was approved in the 1970’s as a feed additive to ruminant diets. Since then, many studies on the effects of Monensin were done. Its mode of action includes the improvement of feed conversion by altering rumen fermentation. This alteration results in a change in the rumen microbial population. Some processes that benefit from the manipulation of rumen microbial population are volatile fatty acid production, peptide degradation and amino acid deamination. The use of ionophores as an antibacterial product in animal feeds were banned by the European union ( EU) in 2006 because of chemical residues found in the edible product making it potentially unhealthy for human consumption and it is also socially unacceptable. Thus, alternative sources need to be identified to help improve the rumen microbial population. Such an alternative could be plant based EO. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a natural anti-bacterial compound affecting a variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. It has been reported to improve the overall health and production of lactating dairy cows by enhancing rumen fermentation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an essential oil extracted from oregano on production and rumen fermentation of Jersey cows grazing ryegrass pasture during spring. Effects were determined on milk yield, milk composition, live weight body condition, rumen pH, Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition, organic material (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility of pasture in the rumen. Fifty four early lactation Jersey cows were blocked, according to days in milk (DIM), 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) and lactation number. Cows within blocks were randomly allocated to one of the three treatments. The three treatments were as follows: Control (CON; maize based concentrate with no feed additives), an ionophore treatment, (MON; a maize based concentrate with monensin provided a daily dose at 300 mg per cow), and an essential oil treatment (EO; a maize based concentrate with oregano extract provided at a daily dose of 1.15 g per cow. Cows received 6 kg of concentrate in the milking parlour and were allocated 10 kg dry matter (DM) of ryegrass pasture, divided into two grazing periods after each milking. Before milking, cows were separated into their respective treatment groups for milking and the consumption of their specific concentrate treatments. Milk yield was recorded on a daily basis. Composite milk samples were collected per cow on a bi-weekly basis. Live weight and body condition score (BCS) were determined before and after the study. Six rumen cannulated cows were used in the rumen study. Two cows were randomly allocated to each of the three treatments in a 3 x 3 Latin square design (three treatments and three periods) thus all the cows were subjected to all three treatments over the experimental period. Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, ruminal ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and in sacco degradability were determined. The daily average milk yield and milk fat content did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05) and were 20.5, 20.3 and 20.4 kg per cow and 4.5, 4.5 and 4.6 % for cows receiving the CON, MON and EO concentrates respectively. Milk protein and milk lactose content increased (P < 0.05) for the two additive treatments in comparison to control and were 3.39b, 3.55a and 3.60a % for milk protein and 4.50b, 4.80a and 4.80a % for milk lactose where cows received the CON, MON and EO treatments, respectively. Ruminal pH values did not differ among treatments, however, the average overall pH over the 24 hour profile was higher for the two additive treatments. There were no differences in total volatile fatty acid concentrations among the three treatments. With regards to individual VFA, propionate was decreased in the MON treatment when compared to the CON treatment. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration did not differ among treatments. There were no differences in DM and NDF degradability (DMd and NDFd) on the 6 h incubation period but monensin increased the DMd at 30 h incubation and both monensin and oregano increased NDFd after 30 h incubation. To conclude the use of monensin and oregano oil extract have shown to be beneficial with regards to increasing the milk protein and milk lactose content as well as the NDFd. The average overall pH from the pH profile resulted in the two additive treatments being higher when compared to the control treatment. This could be beneficial to rumen fermentation and have a positive effect on the microbial population. As monensin and oregano oil extract showed similar results, oregano oil extract can be considered as an alternative natural feed additive to monensin.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Monensin is in die 1970's goedgekeur as 'n voerbymiddel in herkouerdiëte. Sedertdien het navorsing met betrekking tot die invloed van monensin vinnig toegeneem. Die werking van monensin sluit die verbetering van voeromsetting in deur die verbetering van rumenfermentasie. Die verandering in rumenfermentasie het ‘n invloed op die rumenmikrobiese bevolking. Sommige prosesse wat voordeel trek uit die manipulasie van die rumenmikrobiese bevolking is onder andere vlugtige vetsuurproduksie, peptiedafbraak en aminosuurdeaminering. Die gebruik van ionofore as 'n antibakteriese produk in veevoere is gedurende 2006 deur die Europese Unie verbied as gevolg van chemiese residue wat in die eetbare produk gevind is. Die residue maak dit moontlik ongesond vir menslike verbruik en dit is ook nie sosiaal aanvaarbaar nie. Alternatiewe produkte wat help om die rumenmikrobiese bevolking te verbeter en manipuleer moet geïdentifiseer word. Een alternatiewe produk is plantgebasseerde essensiële olies. Origanum (Origanum vulgare) is 'n natuurlike anti-bakteriële produk wat 'n verskeidenheid van gram-positiewe en gram-negatiewe bakterieë in die rumen beïnvloed. Daar is gevind dat die algemene gesondheid en produksie van 'n lakterende melkkoeie verbeter deur die verbetering van rumen fermentasie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die invloed van 'n essensiele olie-ekstrak uit oreganum op die produksie en rumenfermentasie van Jerseykoeie wat raaigras gedurende die lente bewei, te bepaal. Effekte is ondersoek op melkproduksie, melksamestelling, lewende massa, liggaamskondisie, rumen pH, ammoniak stikstof konsentrasie (NH3-N) en vlugtige vetsuursamestelling (VFA) asook ruminale droeë materiaal (DMd)- en vesel-verteerbaarheid (NDFd) van die weiding. Vier en vyftig Jersey koeie in vroeë laktasie is geblok volgens dae in melk (DIM), 4% vet gekorigeerde melk (VGM) en laktasie nommer. Koeie binne blokke is ewekansig aan een van die drie behandelings toegeken. Die drie behandelings was as volg: Kontrole (CON, mielie-gebaseerde konsentraat met geen voer-bymiddel nie), ‘n ionofoor-behandeling (MON; mielie-gebaseerde konsentraat met monensin teen 300 mg / koei per dag), essensiële olie-behandeling (EO; mielie-gebaseerde konsentraat met oreganum ekstrak teen 1.15 g / koei per dag). Koeie het 3 kg konsentraat in die melkstal ontvang met elke melking en 10 kg droeë material (DM) raaigras-weiding is per koei toegeken. Weidingsessies is verdeel in twee periodes, naamlik na elke melking. Voor melking is die koeie geskei om te verseker dat hulle die regte behandeling in die melkstal ontvang. Melkproduksie is daagliks aangeteken. Saamgestelde melk monsters is tweeweekliks per koei versamel. Lewende massa (LW) en liggaamskondisie (BCS) is aan die begin en teen die einde van die studie bepaal. Ses rumen-gekannuleerde koeie is in die rumen studie gebruik. Twee koeie is toegeken aan elk van die drie behandelings in 'n 3 x 3 Latynse vierkant ontwerp (drie behandelings en drie periodes) en al die koeie het gevolglik al drie behandelings gedurende die eksperimentele periode ontvang. Ruminale pH, VFA konsentrasie, ruminale NH3-N, en in sacco degradeerbaarhede; DMd en NDFd is bepaal. Die daaglikse gemiddelde melkproduksie en melkvetinhoud het nie beduidend tussen behandelings verskil nie (P > 0.05) en was 20.5, 20.3 en 20.4 kg/koei per dag en 4.5, 4.5 en 4.6% vir koeie op die drie behandelings (CON, MON, EO), onderskeidelik. Melk proteïen en melk laktose het aansienlik toegeneem (P < 0.05) vir die twee behandelings met die supplemente in vergelyking met die CON behandeling met waardes van 3.4, 3.6 en 3.6% vir melk proteïen en 4.5, 4.8 en 4.8% vir koeie op die CON, MON en EO behandelings, onderskeidelik. Die rumen pH oor 24 uur het nie verkil tussen die drie behandelings nie en die totale VFA konsentrasie het ook nie verskil nie. Die propionaatkonsentrasie het wel afgeneem op die MON behandeling in vergelyking met die CON. Die rumen NH3-N het nie tussen die drie behandelings verskil nie. Die DMd en NDFd verteerbaarhede van die raaigras in die rumen het nie verskil na ‘n 6 h inkubasieperiode nie. Na 30 h inkubasie het monensin ‘n hoër DM verteerbaarheid getoon en in beide die MON en EO-behandelings het die NDF-verteerbaarheid verhoog wanneer dit vergelyk word met die CON. Om saam te vat; die gebruik van monensin en oregano olie ekstrak het getoon dat dit voordelig kan wees met betrekking tot die verhoging van die melk proteïen en melk laktose inhoud, sowel as die NDFd. Die gemiddelde pH van die pH profiel het gelei tot hoër gemiddeldes vir die twee voerbyvoegsel behandelings in vergelyking met die kontrole behandeling. Dit kan voordelig wees om rumen fermentasie te verbeter en dus ‘n positiewe uitwerking te hê op die mikrobiese bevolking. Monensin en oregano olie ekstrak het soortgelyke resultate getoon en daarom kan oregano olie ekstrak beskou word as 'n alternatiewe natuurlike voerbyvoegsel.

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