A genre-based approach to teaching writing across the curriculum in Siswati in South African schools

Khanyile, Busie Minah (2015-12)

Thesis (MLitt)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Linguistic scholars have been exploring an effective, contextual and multidisciplinary approach to language education, following the global increase in multilingual societies. This study aims to explore properties of writing related to genre-based literacy in Siswati as a first language for learners in South Africa in a multilingual context. The research is concerned with the properties of writing in Siswati at the high school level and the instruction associated with it. In reality, the educational context of the learners entails that English is the language of instruction or an educational lingua franca in all subjects in schools with learners who have an African language as home language, although English is a second language (L2) for most learners. Therefore, the learners’ first language (L1) is only taught as a subject. In this situation, learners and teachers are faced with problems of language (L2) proficiency. According to the South African language policy, all national languages spoken in South Africa should be prioritized in education. This study advances a proposal for a multilingual approach in education through genre-based teaching. Hence, this study presents an investigation of the implementation of genre in the home language classroom context in respect to the textlinguistic features of agricultural sciences genres. The genre-based theoretical framework and related methodology is explored and elaborated in this study with regards to how Siswati first language learners can be taught linguistic skills acquired in their mother tongue Siswati to writing in content subjects, e.g. biology. The methodology of this study involves the translation of six agricultural science texts for Grade 12 which are then analysed according to systemic functional linguistic (SFL) grammar. The study also investigates issues and challenges in multilingualism and Education policy. The findings of this study present support of the view of the transfer of genre-based skills in texts across the curriculum.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Taalkundiges het oor die afgelope jare ‘n doeltreffende, kontekstuele, multidissiplinêre benadering ondersoek tot taalonderwys, gegee die wêreldwye toename in meertalige gemeenskappe. Die studie het die doelwit om die eienskappe van skryf te ondersoek soos wat dit verband hou met genre-gebaseerde geletterdheid in Siswati, as ‘n eerste (huis) taal vir leerders in Suid-Afrika in ‘n meertalige konteks. Die navorsing hou verband met die eienskappe van skryf in Siswati op hoërskoolvlak en die onderrig daarmee geassosieer. In die werklikheid van die onderrig is Engels oorwegend die medium van onderrig in vakke in skole waar die leerlinge hoofsaaklik ‘n Afrikataal soos siSwati as eerste (of huis) taal het, alhoewel Engels ‘n tweede (of addisionele) taal is van die leerders. Gevolglik word leerders slegs in hulle eerste taal onderrig in die taalvak (van die spesifieke Afrikataal) self. In hierdie medium van onderrig situasie (waar leerders se tweede/ addisionele taal gebruik word vir die onderrig van inhoudsvakke) word sowel leerders as onderwysers gekonfronteer met die probleem van onvoldoende tweede taal (Engels) vaardigheid. Volgens die nasionale taalbeleid in Suid-Afrika, behoort alle nasionale tale in Suid-Afrika voorrang te geniet in onderwys. Hierdie studie betoog vir ‘n meertalige benadering in onderwys deur gebruik van die genre-gebaseerde benadering. Aldus, bied hierdie studie ‘n ondersoek van die implementering van teksgenres in die huistaal-klas konteks ten opsigte van die teks-linguistiese kenmerke van verskillende genres in landbouwetenskappe. Die genre-gebaseerde teoretiese raamwerk en verbandhoudende navorsingsmetodologie word ingespan in hierdie studie met betrekking tot hoe die tekslinguistiese vaardighede, onderrig aan siSwati eerstetaalleerders soos opgedoen in die onderrig van hulle huis (of eerste) taal, uitgebrei kan word na inhoudsvakke soos landbouwetenskappe. Die metodologie gebruik in hierdie studie behels die vertaling in Siswati (vanuit Engels) van ses landbouwetenskaptekste vir Graad 12, wat dan ontleed word volgens die sistemiese funksionele linguistiek (SFL) model wat onderliggend is aan die genre-gebaseerde benadering. Die studie ondersoek voorts vraagstukke en uitdagings rakende taalbeleid en –beplanning in onderwys. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie bied ondersteuning van die standpunt van die oordrag van genre-gebaseerde vaardighede in tekste oor die kurrikulum heen.

SiSWATI ABSTRACT: Bongcongcoshe betilimi bebasolo baphenya indlela yefufundzisa lulwimi lesebenta kahle, lohambelana nesimo, nalosebenta etifundvweni tonkhe letiniketwa esikolweni, kulandzela kutsi emhlabeni wonkhe jikelele sibalo semimmango lecuketse tive letehlukene netilimi letehlukene siya ngekukhula. Lombhalo uhlose kucwaninga timphawu letihambelana nelwati kutemfundvo eluhlangotsini lwekubhala ngekusebentisa tinhlobo temibhalo elulwimini lweSiswati, lolululwimi lwemdzabu/lwekucala kulabanye bafundzi eNingizimu neAfrika esimeni lesinetilimi letinyenti. Lombhalo lona ukhatsatwe yindzaba yekubhala kubafundzi belibanga lelisetulu, libanga lelishumi nakubili nendlela lebafundziswa ngayo. Ecinisweni, bafundzi basesimeni lapho khona Singisi sisetjentiswa njengelulwimi lwekufundzisa tonkhe tifundvo letinemtsamo noma ke lulwimi lolusetjentiswa esikolweni etifundvweni tonkhe kantsi phela Singisi akusilo lulwimi lebalumunya ebeleni labafundzi. Ngaleso sizatfu, lulwimi lwemdzabu lwalabafundzi lufundziswa kwangatsi lusifundvo phaca njenge lwati lwendalo yonkhana, isayensi. Esimeni lesinjengalesi bafundzi nabothishela bahlangabetana nebulukhuni ekucudzelaneni nalabanye babe basebentisa Singisi. Ngekubeka kwemitsetfo yetemfundvo eNingizimu neAfrika, tonkhe tilimi letisemtsetfweni letifaka ekhatsi tembuso wase Ningizimu neAfrika, tebachamuki, temdzabu, naletihlanganisa emave ngemave tinelilungelo leliphelele lekusetjentiswa esikolweni. Loku kusetfulo sendlela yekufundzisa leshwambakanya tilimi letinyenti, lesolo ingakacali kusetjentiswa. Kungako lombhalo uhlolisisa kutsi ingasetjentiswa njani indlela yekufundzisa ngetinhlobo temibhalo endlini yekufundzisa. Luhlaka lwemdvwebo wekufundzisa ngetinhlobo temibhalo kanye nendlela lekufundziswa ngayo kunconywe ngu (Christie na Derewianka (2008), (Knapp na Watkins (2005), (Martin na Rose (2008), (Rose na Martin (2012), na (Feez na Joyce (1998). Loluhlaka lubuke kutsi simo sivuma kanganani kutsi bafundzi labaceceshwe eSiswatini basebentise emakhono elulwimi lwemdzabu ekubhaleni etifundvweni letinemtsamo, njenge bhayoloji. . Indlela lelandzelwe ekusebenteni lombhalo ifaka ekhatsi kuhunyushwa kwetinhlobo temibhalo letisitfupha letitsetfwe encwadzini yelwati lwendalo kutekulima yelibanga lelishumi nakubili.Lemibhalo iyahlatiywe ngenhloso yekutfola emasu latfolakala elulwimini lweSiswati labhekene nekusebenta kwelulwimi nakukhulunywa ngekwakhiwa kwemisho, tinhlobo temisho, nekuhlanganiswa kwemisho; emasu lasetjentiswa ekwendluliseni tinkhulumo kubalaleli betigaba letehlukene, kanye nemasu ekuhlanganisa emagama kuze akhe umbhalo lonemcondvo lophelele nalovakalako. Ngetulu kwaloko, lombhalo lona uhlolisisa indzaba yekufundzisa leyengamela tilimi letehlukene kanye nemtsetfo wetemfundvo. Lombhalo wetfula indlela yekucecesha bafundzi ekubekeni imibono nemicabango yabo ephepheni, lekuyindlela lesebenta etifundvweni tonkhe letinemtsamo, letifundziswa etikolweni.Lombhalo futsi uphenculula luphikiswano netinsayeya letihambelana nekusetjentiswa kwendlela yekufundzisa lefaka ekhatsi tilimi letehlukene nemtsetfo wetemfundvo. Imiphumela yaloluphenyo kulesifundvo iniketa siciniseko sebukhona nekusebenta kwemasu lahambelana nendlela yekufundzisa ngekusebentisa tinhlobo temibhalo kulo lonkhe luhlelo lwetifundvo. Loku kugcwalisa inhloso yalombhalo lona.

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