Exploration of contributing factors leading to a decrease in agricultural productivity in restituted farms of Ehlanzeni District Mpumalanga province

Mahule, Siboshiwe Gertrude (2015-12)

Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Access to land has been identified as a tool through which the poverty and hunger of historically disadvantaged individuals can be tackled. Agriculture is also known as a source of employment and of livelihood, such as through food security. Many countries use the land reform programme as a tool for access to land that can then be used for agricultural productivity. Land reform implementation takes the form of three major approaches: market-assisted, community-based, and state-led. All three approaches have recorded shortcomings that have led to stumbling blocks in the success of the land reform programme. Historically disadvantaged individuals are most affected by these failures. In this context, this study aims to explore contributing factors leading to a decrease in agricultural productivity in restituted farms in Ehlanzeni District, Mpumalanga province. The methodology followed in this study is that of an empirical case study of a land reform programme in the form of both state-led and market-led approaches. The case is that of the Mapulana community situated in the Ehlanzeni District in Mpumalanga province. The case study is used as a unit of analysis of the land reform programme. The objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To present a theoretical framework by discussing the main concepts of agricultural productivity in order to identify conditions under which agricultural productivity can be attained through land access. 2. To present a theoretical framework by discussing the main concepts of land reform in order to identify criteria for successful land reform, specifically restitution in developing countries and to explore contributing factors leading to a decrease in agricultural productivity. 3. To investigate and discuss contextual and legislative frameworks which guide land reform in South Africa, specifically the current land reform programme and its implementation in rural areas. 4. To assess the implementation of the land restitution programme in the Mapulana case study in Ehlanzeni District in Mpumalanga. 5. To make recommendations based on the above findings in order to improve the implementation of the land restitution programme in the Mapulana case study in the Ehlanzeni District in Mpumalanga. The case study assesses identified gaps in policy formulation, land acquisition, as well as post-settlement support. Policy formulation in the Mapulana case shows signs of a top-down approach without beneficiaries. For example, it ignores the communal land tenure systems that govern black land ownership. Land acquisition in the Mapulana case study consists of the grouping together of competitive land claims into one community claim, despite the fact that the land claimants are not from the same community. Post-settlement support for land beneficiaries is lacking, and this lack of post-settlement support has led to a decrease in agricultural productivity on the restored farms. The literature review reveals that for the sustainability of agricultural productivity there must be enough inputs, including, but not limited to, land, labour, seeds, fertilisers and technology. This research offers recommendations to mitigate these obstacles: 1. It is recommended that the Restitution of Land Rights Act (1994) be amended to clearly address post-settlement support issues. 2. The Commission must make sure that all claimants are treated equally during the processing of land claims. Much must be done to dispel the notion that chiefs get preferential treatment when it comes to land claims. A chief is not supposed to benefit by virtue of being a chief even though he had lodged a claim on behalf of his community unless he too was personally affected or lost rights to land on the land in question. 3. Project planning and implementation need to be carefully handled, and the office of the Commission needs to ensure that the project is transferred to the office of the premier or any delegated member of the executive council, including the municipal council under which the land is situated as stated in the Act. 4. In addition, the department must be careful about making generalised assumptions regarding the capability of land beneficiaries to participate in agricultural production for the market; collective enterprises should be supported only where consensus has been reached between beneficiaries; and all stakeholders must agree on the monitoring and evaluation tools to be used. Land beneficiaries need to be thoroughly trained before the actual land restoration occurs, and on a continuous basis.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Toegang tot grond is geïdentifiseer as 'n instrument waardeur die armoede en die honger van histories benadeelde individue aangepak kan word. Landbou is ook bekend as 'n bron van indiensneming en van lewensmiddele, soos deur voedselsekuriteit. In baie lande word die grondhervormingsprogram as 'n instrument gebruik vir toegang tot grond wat dan deur landbou produktief gebruik kan word. Implementering van grondhervorming verkry vorm deur drie belangrike benaderings wat gekenmerk word deur ondersteuning deur die mark, gemeenskapgebaseerdheid, en staatsbegeleiding. Tekortkominge wat as struikelblokke tot die sukses van die grondhervormingsprogram na vore gekom het, is vir aldrie benaderings aangeteken. Histories benadeelse individue word die ergste deur hierdie mislukkings geraak. Binne hierdie konteks, was die doel van hierdie studie om die bydraende faktore te ondersoek wat in die Ehlanzeni Distriksmunisipaliteit van die Mpumalanga Provinsie op plase wat deur restitusie verkry is, tot 'n afname in landbouproduktiwiteit gelei het. 'n Empiriese gevallestudie van 'n grondhervormingsprogram in die vorm van sowel die staatsbegeleide en die markgeleide benaderings is as metodologie vir hierdie studie gevolg. Die geval is dié van die Mapulana gemeenskap geleë in die Ehlanzenidistrik in Mpumalanga. Die gevallestudie is as 'n eenheid vir ontleding van die grondhervormingsprogram gebruik. Die doelwitte van die studie was soos volg: 1. Om 'n teoretiese raamwerk te voorsien deur 'n bespreking van die belangrikste konsepte van landbou-produktiwiteit, ten einde toestande te identifiseer waaronder landbou-produktiwiteit deur toegang tot grond bereik kan word. 2. Om 'n teoretiese raamwerk te voorsien deur 'n bespreking van die belangrikste konsepte van grondhervorming ten einde kriteria vir suksesvolle grondhervorming te identifiseer, spesifiek met betrekking tot restitusie in ontwikkelende lande, en om bydraende faktore wat tot 'n afname in landbouproduktiwiteit lei, te verken. 3. Om kontekstuele en wetgewende raamwerke wat grondhervorming in Suid-Afrika begelei, veral die huidige grondhervormingsprogram en die implementering daarvan in landelike gebiede, te ondersoek en te bespreek. 4. Om die implementering van die grondrestitusieprogram in die Mapulana gevallestudie in die Ehlanzeni-distrik in Mpumalanga te evalueer. 5. Om aanbevelings gebaseer op die bevindings van die ondersoek te maak ten einde die implementering van die grondrestitusieprogram in die Mapulana gevallestudie in die Ehlanzeni-distrik in Mpumalanga te verbeter. Die gevallestudie evalueer geïdentifiseerde gapings in beleidsformulering, in die verkryging van grond, sowel as in ondersteuning ná vestiging. In die geval van Mapulana toon beleidsformulering tekens van 'n bo-na-onder benadering sonder om begunstigdes te betrek. Dit ignoreer byvoorbeeld die gemeenskaplike grondbesitstelsels waardeur swart grondeienaarskap beheer word. In die Mapulana gevallestudie blyk dit dat die verkryging van grond uit die samegroepering van kompeterende grondeise in een gemeenskapseis bestaan, ten spyte van die feit dat die grondeisers nie uit dieselfde gemeenskap kom nie. Ondersteuning vir grondbegunstigdes ná vestiging ontbreek, en die gebrek aan ondersteuning ná die vestiging het tot 'n afname in landbou-produktiwiteit op die terugbesorgde plase gelei. Die literatuuroorsig toon dat daar vir die volhoubaarheid van landbouproduktiwiteit genoeg insette, insluitend, maar nie beperk tot grond, arbeid, saad, kunsmis en tegnologie nie, moet wees. Hierdie navorsing bied aanbevelings om hierdie struikelblokke te verminder: 1. Dit word aanbeveel dat die Herstel van Grondregte Wet (1994) gewysig word om kwessies rondom ondersteuning ná vestiging duidelik aan te spreek. 2. Die Kommissie moet seker maak dat alle eisers tydens die prosessering van grondeise gelyk behandel word. Moeite moet gedoen word om die idee dat hoofmanne voorkeurbehandeling kry wanneer dit by grondeise kom, te verdryf. Tensy hy self persoonlik geraak word of regte op die grond wat ter sprake is, verloor het, is 'n hoofman is nie veronderstel om voordeel te trek omdat hy 'n hoofman is nie, selfs al het hy 'n eis namens sy gemeenskap ingedien. 3. Soos vermeld in die Wet, moet projekbeplanning en -implementering versigtig hanteer word, en die kantoor van die Kommissie moet verseker dat die projek na die kantoor van die premier of enige gedelegeerde lid van die uitvoerende raad, insluitende die munisipale raad waaronder die grond val, oorgeplaas word. 4. Daarbenewens moet die departement versigtig te werk gaan met veralgemeende aannames oor die vermoë van grondbegunstigdes om aan landbouproduksie vir die mark deel te neem; kollektiewe ondernemings moet slegs ondersteun word waar eenstemmigheid tussen begunstigdes bereik is; en alle belanghebbendes moet saamstem oor die instrumente wat vir monitering en evaluering gebruik word. Grondbegunstigdes moet voor werklike grondrestitusie behoorlik opgelei word, en moet daarna deurlopend opleiding ontvang.

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