The use of History texts in isiXhosa for Grade 11 in developing academic writing skills across the curriculum

Xamlashe, Sibongile Saraphina (2015-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The central aim of the study is to present a proposal of how academic literacy development across the curriculum in secondary school can be facilitated through the use of content subject texts in isiXhosa. This is demonstrated by making use of History texts, which can be incorporated in the isiXhosa Home Language (HL) subject for teaching the writing skills of academic texts. The Genre-based approach to literacy development, which has been employed with great success, especially in Australia, over the past thirty years, is assumed in presenting an analysis of the variety of genres exemplified by the History texts. The analyses of genres will be demonstrated by three texts selected from the grade 11 History textbook and the grade 11 assessment question paper, translated into isiXhosa, respectively. For example, genres such as chronological texts in which historical recounts are grouped into and non-chronological genres in which the factorial and consequential explanation genres are grouped under. The schematic structure of the selected genres is identified and related to the language system represented by the systemic functional linguistics. The study makes use of the method of text analysis and written discourse analysis within the genre framework underpinned by systemic functional linguistic for the data collection. The findings demonstrate that that the effective development of knowledge of language in the Home Language class through the use of texts from content subjects can play a crucial role in advancing academic writing skills, for both the Home language and History. Furthermore; the availability of resources in isiXhosa, teachers training and support on the implementation of genre-based approach underpinned by the systemic functional linguistics can enhance the understanding of genres across the curriculum and will in that effect, promote the use of African languages for academic purposes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die sentrale doelwit van die studie is om ‘n voorstel aan te bied van hoe akademiese geletterdheid in die sekondêre skool gefasiliteer kan word deur die gebruik van inhoudsvaktekste in isiXhosa oor die kurrikulum. Hierdie doelwit word gedemonstreer deur die gebruik van Geskiedenistekste wat geïntegreer kan word in die isiXhosa huistaalvak vir die onderrig van skryfvaardighede van akademiese tekste. Die genre-gebaseerde benadering, wat met groot sukses in veral Australië gebruik is die afgelope dertig jaar, word aanvaar vir die aanbieding van analises van ‘n verskeidenheid genres soos vertoon deur geskiedenistekste. Die analises van genres word geïllustreer deur drie tekste wat geselekteer is uit die Graad 11 Geskiedenisteksboek en ook die Graad 11 assesseringsvraestel, vertaal in isiXhosa, respektiewelik. Byvoorbeeld, genres soos chronologiese tekste, waarin historiese herroepings (‘recounts’) gegroepeer word, en nie-chronologiese genres, waaronder die faktoriale en gevolg-verduidelikings-genres gegroepeer is. Die skematiese strukture van die geselekteerde genres word geïdentifiseer en in verband gebring met die taalsisteem soos gerepresenteer in sistemiese funksionele linguistiek. Die studie maak gebruik van die metode van teksanalise en geskrewe diskoersanalise binne die genre-raamwerk wat onderlê word deur sistemiese funksionele linguïstiek vir dataversameling. Die bevindings demonstreer dat die doeltreffende ontwikkeling van kennis van taal in die Huistaalvak en klasse deur die gebruik van inhoudsvak tekste ‘n belangrike rol kan speel in die bevordering van akademiese skryfvaardighede, in sowel die Huistaalvak as Geskiedenis. Voorts, kan die beskikbaarheid van leermateriaalbronne in isiXhosa, onderwysersopleiding en ondersteuning in die implementering van die genre-gebaseerde benadering waaraan die sistemiese funksionele linguistiek onderliggend is, die begrip van leerders van genres oor die kurrikulum heen verhoog, en dus die gebruik van die Afrikatale vir akademiese doeleindes verhoog.

isiXHOSA ABSTRACT: Injongo ephambili yesi sifundo kukuzisa ingcebiso kuphuhliso lolwimi ukuze lube kumgangatho wamaziko emfundo ephezulu, nophuhliso kwiKharityhulum ngokusebenzisa imibhalo kwizifundo ezingundoqo “content-subjects”. Oku kuza kuboniswa ngokusebenzisa okubhaliweyo kwimbali (history text), okunokuthi kufundiswe kwigumbi lokufundisa lesiXhosa njengolwimi lweenkobe, ukufundisa izakhono zokubhalwa kokubhaliweyo ukuze kube kumgangatho wamaziko aphezulu ezemfundo ukuya kumaziko emfundo enomsila. Indlela yokufundisa ekuphuhliseni ukufunda nokubhala esekelwe kokubhaliweyo ebizwa ngokuba “yiGenre- based approach” neye yasetyenziswa ngempumelelo enkulu, ingakumbi kumazwe afana ne-Ostreliya, kwiminyaka engamashumi amathathu eyadlulayo, ibonwa njengeyona isebenzayo ekuhlalutyeni iindidi ezahlukeneyo zokubhaliweyo ezibonakaliswa yimibhalo yezembali. Ukuphicothwa kwale mibhalo kuza kubonakaliswa ngemibhalo echongiweyo kwincwadi yebanga lethoba (ibakala leshumi elinanye) kwakunye namaphepha ovavanyo eli bakala nathe aguqulelwa esiXhoseni. Umzekelo: okubhaliweyo okubonakalisa indlela yokubhala apho kudweliswa iziganeko, izehlo eziyinyani nezo zifuna ingcaciso ephuhlisa isiphumo okanye isiganeko esithile, njalo njalo. Ubume bokubhaliweyo buza kuphichothwa ngokwendlela ulwimi olume ngayo ngohlobo olukhuthazwa yi“systemic functional linguistics”. Esi sifundo sisebenzisa olo hlobo lokuphicotha okubhaliweyo noluquka ukuphicothwa kokubhaliweyo okukhuthazwa yigenre, ingakumbi ekuqokeleleni idatha. Iziphumo ziphawula ukuba ukuphuhlisa ulwazi olusulungekileyo ngolwimi lweenkobe, lusetyenziswe ingakumbi kwiklasi yolwimi lwenkobe, kunganegalelo elikhulu ekuphuhliseni ukufundiswa kwezakhona zokubhala, nezokuhlalutya okubhaliweyo kwezifundo ezingundoqo “content subjects”. Obu budlelane phakathi kwezifundo zolwimi nezo zingundoqo zinganegalelo elikhulu ekuphuhliseni izakhono zokubhala ezikwizinga eliphezulu. Ngapha koko, ukufumaneka kwale mithombo ngesiXhosa, uqeqesho lwabafundisi- ntsapho nokubaxhasa ekufundiseni ngale ndlela ekhuthazwa yi-“genre ne-systemic functional linguistics” kunganefuthe elihle kwizifundo jikelele, nakuphuhliso kusetyenziso lweeLwimi zesiNtu njengeelwimi zokufunda nokufundisa kumaziko emfundo enomsila.

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