Veerkragtigheidskenmerke van gesinne met ʼn kind met ʼn ernstige of uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid

Durr, Elna (2015-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2015

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Intellektuele gestremdheid word operasioneel gedefinieer as ʼn gestremdheid wat gekenmerk word deur beduidende beperkings in beide intellektuele funksionering (intelligensie) en in aangepaste gedrag (konsepsionele, sosiale en praktiese vaardighede). Vir ʼn diagnose van intellektuele gestremdheid moet die gestremdheid voor die ouderdom van 18 jaar ontstaan. Vier vlakke van intellektuele gestremdheid kan onderskei word, naamlik ligte, matige, ernstige en uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid. Die versorging van ʼn kind met ʼn ernstige of uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid is ʼn lewenslange proses en lei tot stres wat alle lede van ʼn gesin fisies, emosioneel, kognitief en sosiaal beïnvloed. Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om vas te stel watter eienskappe en hulpbronne van gesinne hulle gehelp het om aan te pas nadat hulle kind met ʼn ernstige of ʼn uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid gediagnoseer is. Die studie is beplan en gedoen vanuit ʼn gesinsveerkragtigheidsperspektief. Veerkragtigheid verwys onder andere na die vermoë om terug te bons vanaf beduidende teenspoed; suksesvolle aanpassing gedurende stresvolle lewensgebeure; en positiewe uitkomste ten spyte van stresvolle omstandighede. ʼn Enkelvoudige dwarssnee navorsingsontwerp en ʼn kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gebruik ten einde veerkragtigheidskenmerke by gesinne met ʼn kind met ʼn ernstige of uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid te identifiseer. Ten einde data te bekom, is in-diepte semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met 11 ouerpare gevoer. Deur die gebruik van Braun en Clarke (2006) se tema-ontledingstegniek het vier hooftemas sowel as ʼn aantal sub-temas na vore gekom. Hierdie temas verteenwoordig strategieë wat volgens die deelnemende gesinne aan hierdie studie gehelp het om aan te pas by hulle omstandighede. Daar is bevind dat spirituele hulpbronne soos gebed, ʼn sterk geloof, geestelike ondersteuning en herformulering van ʼn krisis die deelnemende gesinne gehelp het om ʼn meer positiewe siening van hulle situasie te kry. Die sosiale ondersteuning van binne die gesin, vanaf die groter familienetwerk, van vriende en van die gemeenskap het ook ʼn belangrike rol gespeel ten einde die aanpassingsproses vir gesinne te vergemaklik. Vir een gesin het ondersteuning via die internet ook ʼn positiewe bydrae gelewer tot beter aanpassing in hulle gesin. Positiewe gesinseienskappe soos deursettingsvermoë, onderlinge liefde, geduld en humor het ook in sommige gesinne bygedra tot beter aanpassing. ʼn Vaste roetine in die huis is ook deur sommige gesinne aangedui as belangrik vir goeie aanpassing, maar terselfdertyd moet die gesin ook buigbaar wees en aanpassings in die roetines kan maak ten einde die lewe vir almal in die huis makliker te maak. Laastens is bevind dat goeie beplanning in verband met alledaagse aktiwiteite, sowel as beplanning in verband met die kind se toekoms, belangrik is vir beter gesinsaanpassing. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie word ondersteun deur veerkragtigheidsteorieë en kan dus gesien word as nuttige hulpbronne vir gesinne met ʼn kind met ʼn ernstige of uiterste intellektuele gestremdheid se aanpassing. Die bevindinge van die studie lewer ʼn bydrae tot bestaande kennis oor gesinsielkunde en veral oor gesinsveerkragtigheid in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : Intellectual disability is operationally defined as a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning (intelligence) and adapted behaviour (conceptual, social and practical skills). For a diagnosis of intellectual disability, the disability must occur before the age of 18 years. Four levels of intellectual disability can be distinguished, namely mild, moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability. Caring for a child with a severe or profound intellectual disability is a lifelong process and leads to stress that influences all the members of a family physically, emotionally, cognitively and socially. The main purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics and resources of families assisted them to adjust after their child had been diagnosed with a severe or profound intellectual disability. The study was planned and conducted from a family resilience perspective. Resilience refers, among others, to the ability to bounce back from significant adversity; successful adaptation during stressful life events; and positive outcomes despite stressful circumstances. A simple cross-section research design and a qualitative research method were used in order to identify resilience qualities in families with a child with a severe or profound intellectual disability. In order to obtain data, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sets of parents. By using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) theme analysis technique, four main themes and a number of sub-themes emerged. According to the participating families in this study, these themes represent strategies that helped them to adapt to their circumstances. It was found that spiritual resources such as prayer, a strong faith, spiritual support and reformulation of a crisis helped the participating families to have a more positive view of their situation. Social support from within the family, from the extended family network, from friends and the community also played an important role in order to facilitate the adjustment process for the families. Support through the Internet also made a positive contribution to better adjustment in one participating family. Positive family characteristics such as perseverance, mutual love, patience and humour also contributed to better adjustment in some of the participating families. A fixed routine in the house was also indicated by some families as being important for good adaptation, but at the same time the family also had be flexible and make adjustments in their routines in order to make life easier for everyone in the house. Finally, it was found that good planning in connection with everyday activities, as well as planning in connection with the child's future, was important for better family adjustment. The findings of this study are supported by resilience theories and therefore can be viewed as useful resources for the adaptation of families with a child with a severe or profound intellectual disability. The findings of the study contribute to existing knowledge on family psychology and especially family resilience in the South African context.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98035
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