The effect of moderate-intensity resistance training on health-related outcomes in older adults

Harper, Anzerie (2015-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The inclusion of resistance training as part of an exercise program to improve and maintain health, and prevent disease in older adults, has been endorsed by the American Heart Association, American College of Sport Medicine, and the American Diabetes Association (Nelson et al., 2007; Braith & Stewart, 2006). However, relevant research is limited in healthy sedentary older adults. The literature also provides contradicting evidence regarding the effect of resistance training to improve health and functional status in older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate-intensity resistance training on healthrelated outcomes in healthy sedentary older adults. Forty-one healthy sedentary individuals were randomly assigned to either an experimental (RESIS) or control group (CON). The RESIS (women: n = 15, 61.47 ± 4.98 yrs; men: n = 7, 64.29 ± 5.41 yrs) participated in a supervised 16-week moderate-intensity resistance training intervention. The intervention consisted of seven resistance exercises performed for three sets, of increasing resistance (50%, 75% and 100% of 10-RM), of 10 repetitions for each exercise, 3 sessions per week. The CON (men: n = 8, 63.00 ± 5.35 yrs; women: n = 11, 62.09 ± 6.20 yrs) did not participate in an intervention. Variables assessed pre-, and post-intervention included body composition, blood lipid profile, 10-RM bench press and incline leg press, functional capacity via the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) test and perceived health status via the SF-36 health survey. The results showed that moderate-intensity resistance training significantly improve body composition and functional outcomes. However, no significant improvements were evident in blood lipid profile. Practically significant increases in percentage muscle mass (ES = 0.81), fatfree mass (ES = 0.62), and resting energy expenditure (ES = 0.64) were observed. Practically significant decreases in body fat percentage (ES = 0.78), total body (ES = 0.70) and abdominal fat mass as measured by waist circumference (ES =0.83) were also evident. Upper- and lower body strength increased significantly by 37% and 167%, respectively (p < 0.0001) and functional capacity was significantly improved (p < 0.05). The results also demonstrated significant improvements in the physical functioning domain of the SF-36 health survey (P < 0.05). Sixteen weeks of moderate-intensity resistance training was shown to be an effective training method to improve health status and prevent obesity by improving body composition in healthy sedentary older adults. Moderate-intensity resistance training was also beneficial to improve physical performance and functional status in healthy sedentary older adults. However, moderate-intensity resistance training was not a sufficient stimulus to improve blood lipid profile in this population group.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die insluiting van weerstandsinoefening as deel van ʼn oefenprogram om gesondheid te verbeter en te onderhou, en om siekte onder ouer volwassenes te voorkom, is deur die American Heart Association, American College of Sport Medicine, en die American Diabetes Association onderskryf (Nelson et al., 2007; Braith & Stewart, 2006). Relevante navorsing oor gesonde onaktiewe ouer volwassenes is egter beperk. Die literatuur bevat ook teenstrydige bevindinge met betrekking tot die effek van weerstandsinoefening op die verbetering van ouer volwassenes se gesondheid en funksionele status. Die doel van die studie was om die effek van weerstandsinoefening van matige intensiteit op die gesondheidsverwante uitkomste by gesonde onaktiewe ouer volwassenes te ondersoek. Gesonde onaktiewe individue (n = 41) is ewekansig aan òf ʼn eksperimentele (RESIS) òf ʼn kontrole groep (CON) toegeken. Die RESIS (dames: n = 15, 61.47 ± 4.98 jr; mans: n = 7, 64.29 ± 5.41 jr), het onder toesig aan ’n 16-week weerstandsinoefening intervensie van matige intensiteit deelgeneem. Die intervensie het bestaan uit sewe weerstandsoefeninge wat in drie stelle elk, met toenemende weerstand (50%, 75% en 100% van 10-RM), van 10 repetisies vir elke oefening, 3 sessies per week, uitgevoer is. Die CON (mans: n = 8, 63.00 ± 5.35 jr; dames: n = 11, 62.09 ± 6.20 jr), het nie aan ’n intervensie deelgeneem nie. Die veranderlikes wat voor en na die intervensie geassesseer is, het liggaamsamestelling, bloed lipied profiel, 10-RM bench press en incline leg press, funksionele kapasiteit met behulp van die Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) toets en waarneembare gesondheidstatus met behulp van die SF-36 gesondheidsvraelys, ingesluit. Die resultate toon dat weerstandsinoefening van ʼn matige internsiteit die voordeel inhou dat dit liggaamsamestelling en funksionele uitkomste betekenisvol kan verbeter. Geen betekenisvolle verbeterings is egter in die bloed lipied profiel gevind nie. Prakties betekenisvolle toenames in persentasie spiermassa (ES = 0.81), vet-vrye massa (ES = 0.62) en rustende energie-verbruik (ES = 0.64) is waargeneem. Prakties betekenisvolle afnames in liggaamsvet persentasie (ES = 0.78), totale liggaam (ES = 0.70) en abdominale vet-massa soos gemeet deur middel-omtrek (ES =0.83) was ook duidelik. Liggaamskrag van die boonste en onderste ekstremiteite het betekenisvol (p < 0.0001) met 37% en 167% onderskeidelik toegeneem en funksionele kapasiteit het betekenisvol verbeter (p < 0.05). Die resultate het ook betekenisvolle verbeterings in die fisieke funksionering domein van die SF-36 gesondheidsvraelys getoon (p < 0.05). Die resultate toon dat die 16-week weerstandsinoefening intervensie, van gematigde intensiteit, ʼn effektiewe inoefeningsmetode is om die gesondheidstatus te verbeter en om obesiteit te voorkom deur die liggaamsamestelling by gesonde onaktiewe ouer volwassenes te verbeter. Die intervensie van matige intensiteit was ook tot voordeel om fisieke prestasie and funksionele status by gesonde onaktiewe ouer volwassenes te verbeter. Weerstandsinoefening van matige intensiteit was nie ʼn voldoende stimulus om die bloed lipied profiel in hierdie populasie groep te verbeter nie.

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