Anthropometric profile, physical fitness and cognitive functioning of elite Zimbabwean football referees

Banda, Morris (2015-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric profile, body composition, physical fitness and executive cognitive functioning (ECF) of elite male Zimbabwean football referees. A total of 41 male referees took part in the study (M age = 34.89, SD = 0.13 years). Their mean body mass was 70.52 ± 10.50kg, height: 175.72 ± 6.86cm, body mass index: 20.79 ± 2.79kg/m2, waist-hip ratio: 0.83 ± 0.04, sum of six skinfolds: 65.77 ± 24.75mm, and body fat percentage: 11.97 ± 2.60%. A significant difference (p = .04) was found between the 21 referees (177.85 ± 7.32cm) and 20 assistant referees (173.50 ± 5.69cm), with the referees being taller. Their somatotype was 2.68-4.62-2.65 classifying them as balanced mesomorphs. Their physical fitness results were as follows: modified sit and reach (28.31 ± 6.42cm), vertical jump (38.63 ± 5.63cm), one minute sit up (37.56 ± 9.46), and one minute push up (26.13 ± 6.89). Referees on the Fe´de´ration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA, n = 8) accreditation list performed significantly (p = .04) more sit ups in one minute than those on the Zimbabwe Football Association (ZIFA, n = 33) list (36.09 ± 9.26). They recorded a best time of 5.45 ± 0.22s and a mean time of 5.62 ± 0.19s in the 6 x 40 m repeated sprint ability (RSA) test, with the FIFA referees (5.34 ± 0.25s) performing significantly better (p = .03) than the ZIFA referees (5.52 ± 0.20s). The participants (n = 38) completed the Modified Stroop task before and after a maximal effort on the change of direction ability (CODA) and Yo Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) level one test to determine their ECF and the effect of strenuous physical activity on their ECF. Mean time to complete the CODA test was 9.60 ± 0.42s. They covered a distance of 950 ± 279m during the YYIR test, yielding a VO2max of 44.38 ± 2.35ml/min/kg-1, reaching a maximum heart rate of 189.66 ± 8.61 beats per minute or 101.26 ± 4.04% of their age predicted HRmax. Their ECF improved from pre to post-test as follows: C1 (12.73 ± 13.51%, p = .01) C2 (5.48 ± 8.20%, p = .01), C3 (9.15 ± 15.20%, p = .04), and C4 (8.42 ± 18.01%, p = .06). Significant negative correlations of moderate strength were found between the standardised physical performance score and the Modified Stroop test results for C1 pre-test (r = -0.40, p = .01), C3 pre-test (r = -0.34, p = .04), as well as for all four of the conditions at post-testing (C1: r = -0.35, p = .03; C2: r = -0.36, p = .03; C3: r = -0.32, p = .05; C4: r = -0.35, p = .03). These results indicate a significant relationship between physical fitness and ECF. This study lays the foundation for the development of scientific training programmes for elite Zimbabwean referees, as it highlighted strengths and weaknesses. The effectiveness of such programmes is subject to further investigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die antropometriese profiel, liggaamsamestelling, fisiese fiksheid en uitvoerende kognitiewe funksionering (UKF) van elite manlike Zimbabwiese sokkerskeidsregters te bepaal. ʼn Totaal van 41 manlike skeidsregters (gemiddelde ouderdom = 34.89 ± 0.13 jaar) het aan die studie deelgeneem. Hul liggaamsmassa was 70.52 ± 10.50kg, lengte: 175.72 ± 6.86cm, liggaamsmassa indeks: 20.79 ± 2.79kg/m2, maag-tot-heup verhouding: 0.83 ± 0.04, som van ses velvoue: 65.77 ± 24.75mm, en persentasie liggaamsvet: 11.97 ± 2.60%. ʼn Betekenisvolle verskil (p = .04) is waargeneem met die skeidsregters wat langer (177.85 ± 7.32 cm) as die assistent skeidsregters was (173.50 ± 5.69 cm). Hul somatotipe was 2.68-4.62-2.65 wat hul as gebalanseerde mesomorwe klassifiseer. Die fisieke fiksheid resultate was: gemodifiseerde sit-en-reik- (28.31 ± 6.42cm), vertikale sprong- (38.63 ± 5.63cm), een-minuut opsit- (37.56 ± 9.46), en een-minuut opstoottoets (26.13 ± 6.89). Skeidsregters op die Internasionale Sokker Federasie (FIFA) se skeidsregterspaneel kon betekenisvol (p = .04) meer opsitte voltooi (43.63 ± 8.18) as diegene op die Zimbabwiese Sokker Federasie (ZIFA) se skeidsregterspaneel (36.09 ± 9.26). Hul het ʼn beste tyd van 5.45 ± 0.22s en ʼn gemiddelde tyd van 5.62 ± 0.19s in die 6 x 40m herhaalde naelloop (RSA) toets behaal, met die FIFA skeidsregters (5.34 ± 0.25s) wat beter presteer het as die ZIFA skeidsregters (5.52 ± 0.20s). Die deelnemers (n = 38) het ook die gemodifiseerde Stroop toets voor en na afloop van ʼn maksimale poging op die verandering van rigting (CODA) en Yo-Yo onderbroke herstel (YYIR) toetse voltooi ten einde hul UKF en die invloed van veeleisende fisieke aktiwiteit daarop te bepaal. Hul het gemiddeld 9.60 ± 0.42s geneem om die CODA toets te voltooi. Hul het ʼn gemiddelde afstand van 950 ± 279m afgelê tydens die YYIR toets, waartydens ʼn VO2maks van 44.38 ± 2.35ml/min/kg-1 behaal is, teen ‘n gemiddelde HTmaks van 189.66 ± 8.61 slae/ minuut of 101.26 ± 4.04% van hul ouderdom geskatte HTmaks. Hul UKF het van voor- tot natoets soos volg verbeter: (K1: 12.73 ± 13.51%, p = .01; K2: 5.48 ± 8.20%, p = .01; K3: 9.15 ± 15.20%, p = .04; K4: 8.42 ± 18.01%, p = .06). Betekenisvolle negatiewe korrelasies van matige omvang is gevind tussen die gestandaardiseerde fisiese prestasietelling en die tyd vir voltooiing van die Stroop-toets gedurende voortoetsing (K1: r = -0.40, p = .01; K3: r = -0.34, p = .04), asook vir al vier kondisies gedurende na-toetsing (K1: r = -0.35, p = .03; K2: r = -0.36, p = .03; K3: r = -0.32, p = .05; K4: r = -0.35, p = .03). Hierdie resultate dui op ʼn betekenisvolle verwantskap tussen fisiese fiksheid en UKF. Die studie dien as vertrekpunt vir die ontwikkeling van gestruktureerde en wetenskaplik gefundeerde oefenprogramme vir elite Zimbabwiese skeidsregters, aangesien dit sekere sterkpunte en leemtes uitgewys het. Die effektiwiteit van sodanige programme is onderworpe aan verdere ondersoeke.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97956
This item appears in the following collections: