The influence of sonic logos in television advertisements : a neuromarketing perspective

Vorster, Izel Alet (2015-12)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: When engaging in brand-building, marketers often appeal to consumers’ senses. However, one of the senses which has often been ignored by marketers is the consumer’s ability to hear. This state of affairs is puzzling, as sound in its various forms can play a central role in brand-building (Krishnan, Kellaris and Aurand, 2012). Using sound as a strategic marketing tool is known as sonic or audio branding. Sonic branding is defined as the strategic use of sound to create a distinctive auditory identity for a brand (Krishnan et al., 2012). The general idea is to utilise sound and music more consciously to create a link between the consumer and the brand and to not only use music to support an advertisement (Groves, 2012). Successful sonic branding creates triggers that disrupt existing patterns, attract the consumer’s attention and remind the consumer of positive experiences with the brand (Beckerman and Gray, 2014). In-store music, jingles and sonic logos are examples of audio elements that can be used as sonic branding tools. A sonic logo is a small piece of music or sound that is connected to the brand (Groves, 2012) and is sometimes perceived as the auditory counterpart of the visual logo of the brand (Krishnan et al., 2012). Despite the fact that sound has the ability to influence different areas of consumer behaviour (Krishna, 2012), there is limited information available on how a brand can utilise sound strategically to create a unique identity for a brand and how a sonic logo ought to be selected. Research on the subject is limited because sound is often processed at an emotional subconscious level and traditional research methods cannot measure the influence of sound on the emotional response of the consumer. Using traditional research methods to investigate the impact of sound in branding is also subject to potential measurement error. One of the key benefits of using neurophysiological research methods is to narrow the “say” versus the “do” gap in consumer behaviour research (Van Praet, 2012:22) and to investigate the influence of stimuli on emotions. The purpose of this study is to understand how sonic logos are processed by the consumer at an emotional subconscious level. Television advertisements for vehicle and electronic brands were used to assess the subconscious impact of the sonic logos used at the end of six advertisments. The neurophysiological research methods used for data collection were electroenchepalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG) and galvanic skin response. The results revealed a significant difference between how males and females emotionally processed the sonic logos of certain brands (EMG). This differentiation ought to be taken into consideration when selecting an audio element for a brand. The emotional responses of the participants towards the sonic logos did not indicate a long-term effect (EEG). This could suggest that the way in which certain brands are currently using sonic logos is not necessarily effective in creating a long-term emotional connection.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Bemarkers fokus gereeld op die sintuie wanneer die identiteit van handelsmerk geskep word. Die vermoë van die verbruiker om te hoor word egter grotendeels geïgnoreer. Die situasie is verbasend, aangesien klank ʼn belangrike rol kan speel in die bou van ʼn handelsmerk (Krishnan, Kellaris en Aurand, 2012). Die strategiese gebruik van klank in bemarking staan bekend as “sonic branding”. Dit word gedefineer as die strategiese gebruik van klank on ‘n unieke identiteit vir ‘n handelsmerk te skep (Krishnan et al., 2012). Die algemene idee is dat bemarkers meer bewus van musiek en klank behoort te wees, dit strategies gebruik en nie slegs as agtergrond musiek vir ‘n advertensie nie.As musiek of klank susksesvol gebruik word, sal dit die aandag van die verbruiker trek en hom/haar herinner aan positiewe ervarings met die handelsmerk (Beckerman en Gray, 2014). Musiek, “jingles” en die klank-merk van ʼn handelsmerk is voorbeelde van klankelemente wat strategies gebruik kan word. ʼn Klank-merk is ʼn kort stuk musiek of ʼn geluid wat met die handelsmerk geassosieer is (Groves, 2012) en word op dieselfde manier as die visuele logo van ‘n handelsmerk gebruik. Ten spyte van die feit dat klank die vermoeë het om die verbruiker se gedrag in verskillende areas te beïnvloed (Krishna, 2012), is daar min inligting beskikbaar oor hoe ʼn bemarker klank strategies kan gebruik om ʼn unieke identiteit vir ʼn handelsmerk te skep, sowel as hoe ʼn spesifieke geluid van ʼn handelsmerk gekies behoort te word. Navorsing in die area is heel moontlik beperk as gevolg van die feit dat meeste klanke op ʼn emosionele vlak, onder die bewussyn van die verbruiker, geprosesseer word en tradisionele navorsing metodes kan nie die volle effek op die emosionele reaksie meet nie. Die gebruik van tradisionele navorsing metodes om die effek van klank te bestudeer mag moontlik ook foute teweegbring. ʼn Belangrike voordeel van neurofisiologiese navorsing is dat dit die verskil tussen wat verbruikers sê en in werklikheid doen in ag geneem (Van Praet, 2012:22) en die invloed van stimuli op die emosies van die verbruiker bestudeer. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om te bestudeer hoe die klank-merk van ʼn handelsmerk in die emosionele onderbewussyn van die verbruiker geprosesseer word. Ses televisie advertensies met klank-merke in die finale tonele is gebruik om die invloed van die klank-merk op die onderbewussyn van die verbruiker te bestudeer. Die advertensies van voertuig en elektroniese handelsmerke is vir die studie gebruik. Die volgende neurofisiologiese navorsing metodes is gebruik: EEG, EMG, sowel as vel geleiding. Die resultate van die studie dui aan dat daar ʼn beduiende verskil is tussen hoe mans en vrouens die klank-merk van ʼn handelsmerk prosesseer (EMG). Die verskil behoort oorweeg te word wanneer die klankelemente van ʼn handelsmerk gekies word. Die deelnemers se emosionele reaksie teenoor die klank-merk het egter nie ʼn lang-termyn effek gehad nie (EEG). Met ander woorde, die manier waarop sekere handelsmerke klank strategies gebruik is nie noodwendig effektief om ʼn lang-termyn emosionele verbinding tussen die verbruiker en die handelsmerk te bou nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97892
This item appears in the following collections: