Spirituele identiteitsbewuswording deur kommunale lees : ’n gevallestudie van 1 Timoteus 5:1-16 onder vroue in Zama-Zama informele nedersetting

Botha, Jan Adriaan (2015-03)

Thesis (MTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study we examine the role of spiritual identity awareness in communal reading from 1Timothy 5:1-16 with the marginalized women in the Zama-Zama informal settlement. A case study of the text was done amongst women from diverse contexts where they gather as a unique study group. The study focused on the meeting of different women to read, interpret and discuss the Biblical texts with one another. Communal reading creates a safe space for these women to take part in an intercultural conversation. Individuals from diverse contexts are given an opportunity to express themselves communally. This intercultural conversation space is theoretically based on the joint presuppositions of Feminism and African hermeneutics. The physical and sexual violence these women have experienced has a direct effect on their spiritual identity awareness and ordinary life. In chapter two the fundamental presuppositions of both Feminism and African hermeneutics are explored. These will serve as the hermeneutical framework of the study. The voices of the marginalized women will be heard. In Feminism we place the emphasis on the voice of the individual and a group within a certain context. African hermeneutics, on the other hand, highlights through the communal reading a save space in which these voices are heard. Within this safe space it was possible for the marginalized women of Zama-Zama to let their voices be heard both communally, but also as unique individuals. Chapter three discusses a multidimensional exegetical framework for the study. The focus is on communal reading and interpretation of the text. The intercultural conversation in this study is conducted in terms of communal reading and interpretation of 1 Timothy 5:1-16 with the marginalized women in Zama-Zama. The interpretation history of the text is also part of this chapter. The joint presuppositions of Feminism and African hermeneutics and their contexts are discussed here, with the position of women in the Mediterranean world and church. The dominant discourse in the texts is the role of the widows in the church and community with specific reference to the role of hospitality/caring, the interpretation of stories of hope and above all the incarnation in the body of Christ as identified by the women of Zama-Zama. With 1 Timothy 5:1-16 as conversation document and the dual hermeneutic framework as starting point, we discuss the empirical component and exegetical framework of the study in the next chapters. Chapter four focuses on the theoretical framework of the study. The hermeneutical model of intercultural Bible interpretation of Kessler (2004), Hofstede’s (2001) culture theory as well as MacDonald’s (2005) structural models on spiritual identity awareness and development, are investigated here. Some key terms are spotlighted and discussed in more detail, such as culture, identity, spirituality and spiritual identity awareness. In chapter five we focus on the methodology, in particular the research design and research approach. The participant selection for the diverse study group is also important. The research process and the data collection techniques are also discussed here. The data that are collected in the intercultural conversation are then analysed qualitatively. The analyses and research result are discussed in chapter six. The different appendices reflect the detailed information and data that were collected in the study. The summary and implications of the study are the focus of chapter seven. All the diverse voices, the literature study, the unique context of the marginalized women in the text as well as the women of Zama-Zama, are summarized here. The intercultural conversation space was theoretically based on the joint presuppositions of Feminism and an African hermeneutics. The physical and sexual violence against these women has a direct effect on their spiritual identity awareness and ordinary life, as shown by the study. In the conclusion to this study all the diverse discussions converge and an attempt is made to present a reflective interpretation of how spiritual identity awareness functions in the intercultural Bible reading process. We discover in the study that the women, usually the victims of physical and sexual abuse, engage in a positive way towards a new and creative lifestyle. They make a difference in their own lives as well as in the community as well-respected and passionate women. The intercultural conversation space is a valuable instrument for establishing social transformation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word die rol van spirituele identiteitsbewuswording deur kommunale lees ondersoek. ’n Gevallestudie van 1 Timoteus 5:1-16 onder vroue in Zama-Zama informele nedersetting word gedoen, waar gemarginaliseerde vroue uit diverse kontekste byeenkom. Die studie fokus op die bymekaarkom van die vroue en hul saam-lees en interpretasie van die Bybelteks. Daar word gefokus op die konsep van interkulturele Bybel-lees (kommunale lees) wat geproblematiseer word soos dit uit die saamgestelde raamwerk van Afrika en Feministiese-hermeneutiek ontwikkel word. Die fisiese en seksuele geweld teen dié vroue het moontlik ’n direkte invloed op hulle spirituele identiteitsbewuswording en alledaagse lewe. In hoofstuk twee word die Feminisme en Afrika-hermeneutiek bespreek. Dit dien as die hermeneutiese raamwerk van die studie. Die stemme van die vroue word hoorbaar. In die Feminisme word die belang van die stem van die individu binne ’n bepaalde konteks beklemtoon. “Afrika-hermeneutiek” stel die kommunale ruimte voor, waarin dié stemme tot hulle reg kan kom. Binne die veilige ruimte wat geskep word, kan die gemarginaliseerde stemme van die vroue en unieke stem van die indiwidu tot haar reg kom. Hoofstuk drie handel oor die kommunale (leesproses) van 1 Timoteus 5:1-16 onder vroue in Zama-Zama. Die interkulturele gesprek fokus op die saam-lees en interpretasie van die Bybelteks as gespreksdokument. Daar word na die teks en inhoud gekyk. Die fokus in die teks val op die weduwees en hoe hulle hanteer is. Die rol wat gasvryheid/versorging, die interpretasie van stories van hoop en “die inkarnasie” in die geloofsgemeenskap speel, is ook deur die vroue verreken in die leesproses. Deur die kommunale lees van die teks het die vroue hul eie, asook gesamentlike inhoud en betekenis daarvan, weergee. “Feminisme” en Afrika-hermeneutiese konteks word ook hier verreken asook die posisie van vroue in die Mediterreense wêreld en vroeë kerk. Met 1 Timoteus 5:1-16 as gepreksdokument en die tweeledige hermeneutiese raamwerk as uitgangspunt, word die empiriese komponent en die teoretiese raamwerk van die studie in die volgende hoofstukke beskryf. In hoofstuk vier word daar aan die teoretiese raamwerk van die studie aandag gegee. Die hermeneutiese model van interkulturele Bybelinterpretasie van Kessler (2004), Hofstede (2001) se kultuurteorie, asook MacDonald (2000) se strukturele modelle oor spiritualiteitsbewuswording en ontwikkeling word hier verreken. Daar word ook aandag gegee aan die omskrywing van sleutelterme soos kultuur-, identiteit-, spiritualiteit- en identiteitsbewuswording. Hoofstuk vyf handel oor die metodologie. Hier word daar aandag gegee aan die navorsingsbenadering en ontwerp. Daar word ook gefokus op die seleksie van die deelnemers. Die navorsingsproses en data-insamelingstegnieke word ook hier verreken. Die analise en bespreking van die navorsingsresultate word in hoofstuk ses aangespreek. Die kwalitatiewe data wat ingewin is tydens die konkrete interkulturele gesprekke, word hier geanaliseer en bespreek. Verskillende Bylae bevat die detail inligting wat ingesamel en verwerk is tydens die studie. Die gevolgtrekking en implikasies van die studie word in hoofstuk sewe hanteer. Al die stemme wat gehoor is, die literatuurstudie, die unieke konteks van die gemarginaliseerde vroue, asook hulle saam-lees en interpretasie van die Bybelteks word hier gereflekteer en saamgevat. “Feminisme” en Afrika-hermeneutiese konteks is verreken, asook die posisie van die vroue van Zama-Zama wat deur die kommunale saam-lees en interpretasie van die Bybelteks, nuwe perspektiewe ontwikkel het. Daar is bevind in die studie dat die vroue wat gewoonlik slagoffers van fisiese en seksuele geweld was, ’n positiewe belewenis en groei ervaring beleef het ten opsigte van hul spirituele identiteitebewuswording en lewensuitkyk. Die veilige interkulturele gespreksruimte wat ontstaan het in die navorsinsproses was ‘n besondere instrument wat ingespan was ten einde sosiale transformasie te bewerkstellig.

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