Through spindle cooling : a study of the feasibility of split tool titanium machining

Prins, Cilliers (2015-03)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Efficient face milling of titanium alloys provides a global challenge. Difficult-to-cut super alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V is considered the “workhorse” material for aerospace components. During the machining of aerospace components, 80% – 90% of the material is removed. This requirement drives the innovation for machines and tooling to become more efficient, while driving down costs. In South Africa, this requirement is no different. Due to the historic practice of exporting valuable minerals such as Ilmenite, leucoxene and rutile, South Africa does not enjoy many of financial benefits of producing value added titanium alloy products. The Titanium Centre of Competence (TiCoC) is aimed at creating a South African titanium manufacturing industry by the year 2020. More specifically, the roughing of Ti-6Al-4V aerospace components has been identified as an area for improvement. The thermal conductivity of Ti-6Al-4V is significantly lower than that of other “workhorse” metals such as steel or aluminium. Therefore, heat rapidly builds up in the tool tip during high speed machining resulting in shortened tool life and increased machining costs. Hence the ongoing developments in the field of cooling methods for high speed machining. The latest development in high pressure cooling (HPC) is split tools that deliver coolant into the cutting interface via flat nozzles in the rake face of the insert. Although it has been released recently and limited to a single supplier, this cooling method is commercially available, yet little is known about its performance or application conditions. The operational characteristics of split tools are studied by answering set research questions. A dynamometer was used to measure the tangential cutting forces during 11 cutting experiments that follow a three-factor factorial design at two levels and with three centre points. A second-order model for predicting the tangential cutting force during face milling of Ti-6Al-4V with split tools was fit to the data at 95% confidence level. A predictive cutting force model was developed in terms of the cutting parameters: (1) Axial depth of cut (ADOC), (2) feed per tooth and, (3) cutting speed. The effect of cutting parameters on cutting force including their interactions are investigated. Data for chip evacuation, surface finish and tool wear are examined and discussed. Practical work was done at a selected industry partner to determine: (1) impact of an analytical approach to perform process development for aerospace component roughing, (2) determine the feasibility of implementing split tools to an existing process. A substantial time saving in the roughing time of the selected aerospace component was achieved through analytical improvement methods. Furthermore it was found that the split tools were not a suitable replacement for current tooling. It was established that certain critical operational requirements of the split tools are not met by the existing milling machine at the industry partner.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Doeltreffende masjinering van titaan allooie bied `n wêreldwye uitdaging. Moeilik-om-te-sny super allooie soos Ti-6Al-4V word as die “werksesel” materiaal vir lugvaart komponente beskou. Gedurende die masjinering van lugvaart komponente word 80% - 90% van die materiaal verwyder. Dit is hiérdie behoefte wat die innovering van masjien -en snygereedskap dryf om dit meer doeltreffend en finansieël vatbaar te maak. Die Suid Arikaanse behoefte vir doeltreffende snygereedskap vir Ti-6Al-4V masjinering stem ooreen met hierdie internationale behoefte. Die geskiedkundige Suid Afrikaanse praktyk om onverwerkte, waardevolle minerale soos Ilmeniet, rutiel en leucoxene uit te voer, kniehalter die land se kans om winste uit verwerkte titaan allooi produkte te geniet. Die “Titanium Centre of Competence” (TiCoC) se mikpunt is om `n Suid Afrikaanse titaanproduk vervaardigingsmark op die been te bring teen 2020. Stellenbosch Universiteit se funksie, binne hierdie strategiese raamwerk, fokus op hoë spoed masjinering van Ti-6Al-4V lugvaart komponente. Die hitte geleidingsvermoë van Ti-6Al-4V is noemenswaardig laer as die van ander “werksesel” materiale soos byvoorbeeld staal of alumium. Om hierdie rede word hitte in die freesbeitelpunt gedurende hoë spoed masjinering opgeberg. Dit verkort gereedskap leeftyd en verhoog masjinerings kostes. Daarvandaan deurlopende ontwikkelinge in verkoelingsmetodes vir hoë spoed masjinering. Die mees onlangse ontwikkeling in hoë druk verkoeling is “split tools” wat koelmiddel na die snyoppervlak deur middel van langwerpige gleufies in die hark gesig van die beitelpunt lewer. Hierdie tegnologie is op die mark beskikbaar, maar slegs deur `n enkele verskaffer. Daar is ook geen akademiese publikasies wat oor Ti-6Al-4V masjinering met “split tools” handel nie. Die verrigtings vermoë en toepassings gebied vir die gereedskap is steeds onbekend. 'n Dinamometer is gebruik om die tangensiale snykragte tydens 11 sny eksperimente te meet. Die eksperiment ontwerp is faktoriaal van aard en bevat drie faktore en drie middelpunte oor twee vlakke. `n Kwadratiese model is geskik om die data op 95% vertroue vlak voor te stel en voorspellings mee te maak. Die voorspellingsmodel is ontwikkel in terme van: (1) Diepte van snit, (2) voertempo, en (3) Snyspoed. Die invloed van die drie parameters op die tangentiale snykrag, asook invloed met mekaar word ondersoek. Verdere data in verband met materiaal verwydering, oppervlak afwerking en beitel slytasie word ook bespreek. Praktiese werk is met behulp van `n bedryfsvennoot gedoen om vas te stel: (1) die impak van 'n analitiese benadering en ontwikkelings proses op die uitrof van lugvaart komponente, (2) en om die lewensvatbaarheid van implementering van “split tools“ aan 'n bestaande proses te bepaal. `n Noemenswaardige besparing is sodoende behaal. Dit is verder bevind dat “split tools” nie `n geskikte plaasvervanger vir die huidige snygereedskap is nie. Die rede daarvoor is gedeeltelik omdat die huidige freesmasjien by die bedryfsvennoot nie aan die kritiese operasionele vereistes van die gereedskap vervaardiger voldoen nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97118
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