Influence of winemaking practices on the chemical characteristics of winery wastewater and the water usages of wineries.

Conradie, Adel (2015-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production of wine globally has increased over the past years, increasing the volume of water used and wastewater generated for every litre of wine produced. In the past, the small volumes of winery wastewater that were produced by wineries had little effect on the immediate environment. However, with the increasing wine production all around the world, winery wastewater is a rising concern for the contamination of soil and subsurface flow. In order to fully understand the impacts of winery wastewater, it is important to establish the volumes and chemical characteristics of the wastewater, before considering possible treatments. The first aim of this study was to determine the influence of certain winemaking practices on the water usage. Two wineries in the Stellenbosch Winelands District were monitored during two harvests and one post-harvest season. It was evident through this study that water plays a vital role during the production of wine and that water is needed at virtually all the winemaking steps. However, the volume of clean water needed differs immensely during the course of the production process. It was noticed that throughout the harvest period at both wineries the clean water demand was highest and decreased during the course of the post-harvest period and steadily increased again towards the end of the year. The harvest period contributes between 30 and 40% of the yearly water usage at the respective wineries. It was also noticed that certain winemaking practices including filtering with a bulk filter, washing of barrels and bottling contributes heavily to the water usage throughout the year. Activities that increase water usage during harvest include the washing of the press and processing a combination of red and white grapes on the same day. Furthermore, it was identified that one of the wineries used a smaller volume of water on a daily basis and per tonnage during harvest than the other, indicating that the cleaner production strategy established 10 years earlier has a positive impact on their water usage. The second aim of this study was to monitor the raw and treated winery wastewater from the two wineries during a period of 15 months, including two harvests and one post-harvest season. This was done to investigate the characteristics of the raw and treated wastewater. Firstly, to determine the impact of the different winemaking practices on the chemical composition of the wastewater and secondly, to determine the efficiency of the existing constructed wetlands on the wastewater and the characteristics of the treated wastewater. From this study it was possible to make two main observations concerning the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of the two wineries. Primarily, it was observed there were variations in the raw wastewater characteristics of the two wineries and above all, that both wineries showed a decrease in the COD of the raw wastewater produced. Not only did the decrease in the raw wastewater COD over this period show promising results when a cleaner production plan is established and managed it also seems to show a decrease in the volumes of water used by the respective wineries and increase in quality.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gedurende die afgelope paar jaar het wynproduksie wêreldwyd toegeneem en as gevolg hiervan toenemende hoeveelhede water gebruik en afvalwater gegenereer. In die verlede het die klein volumes kelderafvalwater wat deur wynkelders geproduseer is min effek op die onmiddelike omgewing gehad, maar gegewe die toenemende produksie van wyn regoor die wêreld is daar groeiende kommer oor die besoedeling van gronde en ondergrondse vloei deur kelderafvalwater. Dit is belangrik om die volumes en chemiese eienskappe van die afvalwater te bepaal om die impak van die water ten volle te verstaan, voordat moontlike behandelings oorweeg word Die eerste doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal hoe sekere wynmaakpraktyke watergebruik beïnvloed. Twee wynkelders in die Stellenbosch Wynland Distrik is gedurende twee parsseisoene en een na-pars seisoen gemonitor. Hierdeur het dit duidelik geword dat water ‘n noodsaaklike rol speel in wynproduksie en benodig word vir feitlik alle stappe in die wynmaakproses. Die volume skoon water wat benodig word verskil wel noemenswaardig tydens die produksieproses. Die gebruik van skoon water van beide kelders was hoog tydens die parsseisoen, het afgeneem gedurende die loop van die na-pars periode en het geleidelik weer toegeneem teen die einde van die jaar. Die parsseisoen dra tussen 30 en 40% by tot die jaarlikse waterverbruik van die onderskeie kelders. Dit is ook opgemerk dat sekere wynmaakpraktyke, insluitend filtrasie met ‘n grootmaat filter, die was van vate en bottelering, grootliks bydrae tot die waterverbruik deur die loop van die jaar. Aktiwiteite wat waterverbruik tydens parstyd verhoog sluit in die gebruik van die pers en die verwerking van ‘n kombinasie van rooi en wit druiwe op dieselfde dag. Daar is ook vasgestel dat een van die wynkelders tydens parstyd ‘n kleiner volume water gebruik op ‘n daaglikse basis asook per tonnemaat wat daarop dui dat die “skoner” produksie strategie wat dié kelder 10 jaar gelede gevestig het wel ‘n positiewe impak op waterverbruik het. Die tweede doel van hierdie studie was om die onbehandelde en behandelde afvalwater van hierdie twee wynkelders te monitor oor 'n tydperk van 15 maande, wat twee paste en een na-pars seisoen insluit. Dit is gedoen om die impak van verskillende wynmaakpraktyke op die chemiese samestelling van die afvalwater te ondersoek asook om die doeltreffendheid van bestaande kunsmatige vleilande in terme van afvalwaterbehandeling te bepaal en die eienskappe van die behandelde afvalwater te ondersoek. Gevolglik is twee belangrike waarnemings oor die chemiese suurstof behoefte (CSB) konsentrasie van die twee wynkelders gemaak. Variasies in die onbehandelde afvalwater eienskappe is waargeneem by beide wynkelders en daar was ‘n afname in CSB van die onbehandelde afvalwater by beide wynkelders. Die afname in CSB van die onbehandelde afvalwater oor hierdie tydperk is belowend en dit blyk dat wanneer ‘n “skoner” produksie plan opgestel en bestuur word dit wel ‘n afname in waterverbruik en verhoog in kwaliteit by die kelders tot gevolg het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97036
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