The three-dimensional kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in 6-10 year old typically developed children in the Cape Metropole A Pilot Study

Smith, Yvonne (2015-04)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A functional gait forms an integral part of life, allowing individuals to function within their environment and participate in activities of daily living. The evaluation of gait forms an essential part of a physical examination and can help screen for physical impairments. To the researchers‟ knowledge no 3D gait analysis studies of this nature have been conducted in South Africa. South African gait analysis laboratory protocols and procedures may differ from laboratories in other countries; therefore a South African data base of normative values is required to make a valid assessment of South African children‟s gait. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters of gait of typically developed children between the ages of 6-10 years in the Cape Metropole of the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study was conducted. Twenty-eight typically developed children were conveniently sampled from aftercare facilities and schools were performed in the Cape Metropole in the Western Cape, South Africa. The three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters of gait were analyzed. For data capture, the lower limb Plug-in-Gait (PIG) marker placement was used. Participants were asked to walk bare footed at self-selected speed. Due to a small sample size, children were also sub-divided into two groups (Group A: 6-8 years and Group B: 9-10 years) for comparison. Means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated for all outcomes, followed by statistical tests to determine significant differences between the two sub-groups for spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the sub-groups for all the non-normalized spatiotemporal parameters. A statistical significant difference between the sub-groups for the mean hip rotation minimum values (p=0.036) was found. There was no significant difference between the sub-groups for any other kinematic parameter or when comparing the normalized spatiotemporal parameters. CONCLUSION: This study provides descriptive gait parameters that can be used for comparison or gait analysis purposes. Our results suggest that normalized spatiotemporal parameters showed no significant difference between the age groups and are consistent with international children‟s spatiotemporal parameters. Kinematic values showed significant changes with hip rotation. Older children had more external rotation at their hips. KEYWORDS: 3D gait analysis, walking, children, spatiotemporal parameters, kinematics.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: INLEIDING: „n Funksionele stap is „n essensiële deel van die lewe wat mens toelaat om in jou omgewing te funksioneer en om deel te neem aan daaglikse aktiwiteite. Evaluasie van stap is „n belangrike deel van die fisiese evaluasie en kan help om te sif vir fisiese verswakking of abnormaliteite. So ver hierdie navorsers weet, is hierdie die eerste loop analise studie van sy soort wat in Suid-Afrika onderneem is. Suid-Afrikaanse stap-evaluasie-labrotorium protokols en prosedures mag ook dalk verskil van die in ander lande. Dus is „n Suid-Afrikaanse databasis vir normale waardes van loop nodig om „n gegronde evaluasie van Suid-Afrikaanse kinders se loopgang te kan maak. DOELWIT: Die doel van hierdie studie is om die kinematika en spatiotemporale parameters van loop te omskryf in tipies ontwikkelde kinders tussen die ouderdom van 6-10 jaar in die Kaapse Metropool en om die bevindinge tussen die twee ouderdomsgroepe te vergelyk. METODE: „n Beskrywende studie is uitgevoer. Ag-en-twintig tipies ontwikkelde kinders is van skole en nasorgfasiliteite in die Kaapse Metropool in die Wes-Kaap, Suid-Afrika gewerf. Die drie-dimensionele (3D) onderste ledemaat se kinematika en spatiotemporale parameters van loop is geanaliseer. Vir data insameling is die onderste ledemaat Plug-in-Gait (PIG) merker-plasing gebruik. Deelnemers is gevra om kaalvoet teen hulle eie spoed te stap. Die kinders is in die verskeie ouderdomsgroepe verdeel, maar as gevolg van klein toetsgroepgetalle, is hulle sub-verdeel in twee groepe (Groep A: 6-8 jaar en Groep B: 9-10 jaar). Beskrywende statistiese tegnieke is gebruik vir alle uitkoms maatreëls. Gemiddeldes en standaardafwykings (SA) was bereken, om beduidende verskille tussen die ouderdomsgroepe en sub-groepe te bepaal. RESULTATE: Daar is „n beduidende verskil tussen die jonger en ouer kinders vir nie-genormaliseerde spatiotemporale parameters, asook „n beduidende verskil tussen die sub-groepe vir die gemiddelde heuprotasie minimum waardes (p=0.036). Daar was geen beduidende verskil tussen die twee groepe met die ander kinematiese parameters of met genormaliseerde spatiotemporale parameters van die sub-groepe nie. GEVOLGTREKKING: Hierdie studie verskaf beskrywende statistiese data van stap-parameters wat gebruik kan word vir vergelyking met ander kinders van dieselfde ouderdomme of loop-analise doeleindes. Ons bevindinge stel voor dat genormaliseerde spatiotemporale parameters geen beduidende bevindings aandui tussen die verskeie ouderdomsgroepe nie. Dit is ook konsekwent met internasionale kinders se spatiotemporale parameterwaardes. Kinematisie waardes het beduidende verskille in heuprotatsie getoon. Ouer kinders het meer eksterne rotasie in hulle heupe in vergelyking met jonger kinders. Soos die kinders ontwikkel, verminder die heup-anteversie en die heup beweeg vanaf interne rotasie na „n relatiewe eksterne rotasie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97010
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