The determination of the spatial and temporal distribution of Aster Yellows phytoplasma in grapevine

Smyth, Natalie (2015-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa is ranked amongst the top ten for wine production internationally. Viticulture contributes immensely to the economy, which justifies research into the pathogens that may negatively affect wine production. Aster Yellows phytoplasma was reported in South African vineyards in 2010 and has since been an ongoing problem for grape farmers in affected areas. Throughout the world, phytoplasma diseases such as Grapevine Yellows have caused detrimental effects on the vines, often resulting in death. The limited knowledge on prevention and control of the pathogen can be attributed to the lack of full understanding of the epidemiology and accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of Aster Yellows phytoplasma in individual grapevines and to record a possible temporal or seasonal distribution. The recovery phenotype phenomenon was encountered during the study and surveys were conducted in order to determine whether recovery was permanent. In order to perform the studies, a reliable assay to accurately detect the pathogen in grapevines was required. A comparison between three assays was completed in furtherance of deciding which to use for the further experimentation. The three assays included a nested PCR utilizing universal primers, a Real-Time PCR using Syto9 as a double stranded DNA specific dye and a Real- Time PCR with a TaqMan® probe using an identical dilution series. Of the three assays tested, the nested PCR proved to be the most sensitive diagnostic procedure, detecting Aster Yellows phytoplasma in very low titers and was thus used for diagnostics in further experiments. In order to determine the spatial patterns of Aster yellows phytoplasma infection, leaf, petiole, trunk, root and cane samples were taken from three whole grapevine plants. Phloem scrapings obtained from the cane samples yielded more positive results in comparison to the other parts of the plant tested. Not only do phytoplasmas display an erratic spatial distribution, but also have a tendency to change over time. Thirty symptomatic grapevines were sampled over one and a half growing seasons, with results concluding that February yielded the most positive diagnoses. Fifty plants that had been previously pruned back and no longer displayed symptoms were also sampled in 2013 and 2014, and all yielded negative results over both years. This study contributes to comprehension of Aster Yellows phytoplasma epidemiology and ultimately the advancement of accurate diagnosis.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika is internasionaal geposisioneer onder die top tien vir die produksie van wyn. Wingerd dra geweldig by tot die ekonomie, wat navorsing oor die patogene wat wynporduksie negatief beïnvloed, regverdig. Aster Yellows phytoplasmais in 2010 gerapporteer in Suid-Afrikaanse wingerde en is sedertdien 'n deurlopende probleem vir druiweboere in geaffekteerde gebiede. Dwarsdeur die wêreld, het fitoplasma siektes soos Grapevine Yellows ‘n nadelige uitwerking op wingerde, wat dikwels lei tot plantsterftes. Die beperkte kennis oor die voorkoming en beheer van die patogeen kan toegeskryf word aan die gebrek aan begrip van die epidemiologie en akkurate diagnose . Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ruimtelike verspreiding van Aster geel fitoplasma in individuele wingerdstokke te bepaal en 'n moontlike tydelike of seisoenale verspreiding aan te teken. Die herstel-fenotipe verskynsel is tydens die studie teëgekom en opnames is uitgevoer ten einde te bepaal of die herstel permanent was. Ten einde die studie uit te voer , is 'n betroubare toets vereis om die patogeen in wingerde akkuraat te spoor. : Drie toetse is vergelyk (en geëvalueer) vir hulle geskikthed vir gebruik in die studie. Die drie toetse het ingesluit 'n geneste PKR wat gebruik maak van universele primers, 'n in-tydse PKR (real-time PCR) wat Syto9 gebruik as 'n dubbelstring DNS spesifieke kleurstof, en 'n in-tydse PKR met 'n TaqMan® peiler, en is vergelyk met behulp van 'n identiese vedunnings reeks. Van die drie toetse , is die geneste PCR bewys om die mees sensitiewe diagnostiese prosedure te wees , en kon Aster geel fitoplasma in baie lae titers opspoor en is dus gebruik vir die diagnose in verdere eksperimente. Ten einde die ruimtelike patrone van Aster geel fitoplasma infeksie te bepaal, is blaar, blaarsteel, stam, wortel en loot monsters van drie volle wingerdstokke geneem. Floëem skraapsels verkry uit die loot monsters het meer positiewe resultate opgelewer in vergelyking met die ander dele van die plant. Nie net vertoon phytoplasmas 'n wisselvallige ruimtelike verspreiding nie, maar het ook 'n neiging om te verander met verloop van tyd. Dertig simptomaties wingerdstokke is versamel oor een en 'n half groeiseisoene,en die resultate het gewys dat Februarie die meeste positiewe diagnoses het. Monsters is versamel in 2013 en 2014 van vyftig plante wat voorheen teruggesnoei is en nie meer simptome vertoon nie, en alle monsters het negatiewe resultate opgelewer oor beide jare. Hierdie studie dra by tot begrip van Aster geel fitoplasma epidemiologie en uiteindelik die bevordering van akkurate diagnose.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96990
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