Metagenomic screening of cell wall hydrolases, their anti-fungal activities and potential role in wine fermentation

Ghosh, Soumya (2015-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The grape and wine ecosystem contains fungi, bacteria and yeasts whose interactions contribute to the final wine product. While the non-Saccharomyces yeasts are dominant in the early stage of alcoholic fermentation, the later stage is always dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although their presence in wine fermentation is often short-lived, the non-Saccharomyces yeasts are known to produce an array of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes which facilitate the extraction and release of aroma compounds, but might also play a role in microbial interactions. The present study aimed to investigate the microbial diversity of grape juice and to evaluate the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to produce hydrolytic enzymes and display anti-fungal properties. To capture the microbial diversity, culture-dependent (plating) and –independent (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA)) techniques were used in parallel. The fungal and bacterial ARISA displayed a wider range of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in comparison to cultivation-based technique, demonstrating that ARISA is a powerful culture-independent technique applicable to ecological studies in wine. Some of the uncommon yeast isolates derived from our cultivation-based study were subjected to an enzymatic screening process. Hydrolases, such as chitinases, β-1,4-cellulases, β-1,3-1,6-glucanases, β-glucosidases, pectinases and acid proteases were specifically sought. Most of the yeast isolates exhibited chitinase, β-1,4-cellulase as well as β-1,3-1,6-glucanase activities. Only Metschnikowia chrysoperlae exhibited β-glucosidase activity. We also retrieved the partial chitinase gene sequences from M. chrysoperlae, Pichia burtonii, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii that exhibited chitinase activity. Among the isolates, Pseudozyma fusiformata exhibited a strong antagonistic activity against the wine spoilage yeasts B. bruxellensis AWRI 1499 and B. anomalus IWBT Y105. Furthermore, we showed that the killer phenotype of P. fusiformata cannot be attributed to a viral encoded dsRNA. Finally, two metagenomic approaches were employed in an attempt to explore the indigenous microbiome in a more holistic manner, where we adopted whole metagenome Roche GS-FLX 454-pyrosequencing and construction of a fosmid library. The whole metagenome sequencing revealed a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes that showed homology to enzymes from different fungal and non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Moreover, the metagenomic library screening resulted in the retrieval of 22 chitinase and 11 β-glucosidase positive fosmid clones originating from yeasts. Two clones of interest, BgluFos-G10 and ChiFos-C21, were subjected to next generation sequencing. BgluFos-G10 revealed 2 ORFs exhibiting homology to glycosyl hydrolase family 16 proteins whereas no ORFs encoding chitinase enzymes could be identified in the ChiFos-C21 clone. However, all the potential ORFs identified exhibited homology to a gene cluster from Clavispora lusitaniae ATCC 42720, suggesting that the cloned DNA fragments belonged to a yeast species closely related to C. lusitaniae or members of the family Metschnikowiaceae. Overall, our study identified a variety of novel hydrolytic enzymes. However, retrieving the full gene sequences of these identified enzymes would be the immediate follow-up of our study. Moreover, the hydrolytic and antifungal activities exhibited by the yeast isolate could be of major interest in evaluating their potential as biocontrol agents against grapevine fungal pathogens and subsequently the wine spoilage yeasts. It would be interesting to evaluate as well the potential impact of these enzymes under wine making condition and could be our next step of investigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die druif en wyn ekosisteme bevat swamme, bakterië en giste en die interaksies van hierdie organismes dra by tot die finale wyn produk. Die nie-Saccharomyces giste is dominant in die vroeë stadium van die alkoholiese fermentasie, maar die latere fase word altyd gedomineer deur Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alhoewel hulle teenwoordigheid in wyngistings gewoonlik kortstondig is, is die nie-Saccharomyces giste bekend vir die produksie van ‘n verskeidenheid ekstrasellulêre hidrolitiese ensieme wat die ekstraksie en vrylating van aroma komponente fasiliteer, en ook moontlik ‘n rol kan speel in mikrobiese interaksie. Hierdie studie beoog om die mikrobiese diversiteit van druiwesap te bestudeer en die potensiaal van nie-Saccharomyces giste te evalueer ten opsigte van die produksie van hidrolitiese ensieme, asook die demonstrasie van anti-swam eienskappe. Kweking-afhanklike (uitplating), asook –onafhanklike (Automatiese Ribosomale Intergeniese Spasieerder Analise (ARISA)) tegnieke is in parallel gebruik om die mikrobiese diversiteit te bepaal. Die swam en bakteriële ARISA het ‘n groter verskeidenheid van operasionele taksinomiese eenhede (OTUe) vertoon in vergelyking met die kweking-gebasseerde tegniek en dit demonstreer dat ARISA ‘n kragtige kweking-onafhanklike tegniek is, wat toepasbaar is in ekologiese studies van wyn . Sommige van die skaarser gisisolate, uit ons kweking -gebasseerde studie was vir ensiemaktiwiteite geskandeer. Daar is spesifiek gesoek vir hidrolases soos chitinases,β-1,4-sellulases, β-1,3-1,6-glukunases, β-glukosidases, pektinases en suur proteases. Die meeste gisisolate het chitinase,β-1,4-sellulase asook β-1,3-1,6-glukunase aktiwiteit vertoon. Slegs Metschinikowia chrysoperlae het β-glukosidase aktiwiteit vertoon. Ons het verder die gedeeltelike chitinase geensekwensies van M. chrysoperlae, Pichia burtonii en Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii wat chitinase aktiwiteit vertoon het, bepaal. Een isolaat, Pseudozyma fusiformata, het ‘n sterk antagonistiese aktiwiteit teenoor die wyn bederfgiste, Bretanomyces bruxellensis AWRI 1499 en B. anomalus IWBT Y105 vertoon. Verder het ons gewys dat die killer fenotipe van P. fusiformata nie gekoppel kan word aan’n viraal gekodeerde dsRNA nie. Ten laaste is twee metagenomiese benaderings, naamlik die volledige metagenoom Roche GS-FLX 454-pirovolgordebepaling en konstruksie van ‘n fosmied biblioteek, gebruik om die inheemse mikrobioom op ‘n meer holistiese wyse te bestudeer. Die volgordebepaling van die volledige metagenoom het ‘n wye verskeidenheid hidrolitiese ensieme aan die lig gebring wat homologie met ensieme van verskillende swamme en nie-Saccharomyces gisspesies getoon het. Verder het die skandering van die metagenomiese biblioteek die isolasie van fosmiedklone van gisoorsprong wat positief is vir chitinase aktiwiteit (22 klone) en β-glukosidase aktiwiteit (11 klone) tot gevolg gehad. Twee van hierdie klone, BgluFos-G10 en ChiFos-C21, is met volgende generasie volgordebepaling ontleed. BgluFos-G10 het twee oopleesrame (OLRe) wat homologie met glikosiel hidrolase familie 16 proteïene het, vertoon maar geen OLRe wat chitinase ensieme enkodeer kon in die ChiFos-C21 kloon geïdentifiseer word nie. Al die potensiële OLRe wat geïdentifiseer is, het homologie aan ‘n genepoel van Clavispora lusitaniae ATCC 42720 vertoon, wat daarop dui dat die gekloneerde DNS fragmente aan ‘n gisspesie behoort wat naverwant aan C. lusitaniae of lede van die Metschinikowiaceae familie is. In geheel gesien het ons studie ‘n verskeidenheid van nuwe hidrolitiese ensieme geïdentifiseer. Die bepaling van die volledige geenvolgordes van hierdie geïdentifiseerde ensieme sal die onmiddelike opvolg aksie van hierdie studie wees. Verder is die hidrolitiese en anti-swam aktiwiteite wat deur die gisisolate gedemonstreer is, van hoof belang, asook die evaluering van hulle potensiaal as biokontrole agente teen wingerd swampatogene en wyn bederfgiste. Dit sal ook interessant wees om die potensiële impak van hierdie ensieme onder wynmaakkondisies te bepaal, en dit kan dus ons volgende ondersoek stap wees.

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