The relationships between emotional labour, the HEXACO personality traits, work engagement and burnout in the hospitality industry

De Villiers, Charl (2015-04)

Thesis (MCOM)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The flexible nature of the service delivery environment has had a major impact on the functioning of organisations. Managers realise that they need to be flexible and able to change if they want to survive in the long run. Employees are the tools service organisations utilise to make profit in the hospitality industry. The restaurant industry is a highly competitive environment and managers cannot afford poor service delivery from employees. Employees experiencing high levels of job engagement and low levels of job burnout have indicated superior performance and increased financial returns. The primary objective of this research study was to develop and empirically test a structural model that elucidates the antecedents of variance in job engagement and job burnout among frontline waitrons at franchise x in the Western Cape. In addition, the research study investigated whether employees utilise deep acting or surface acting when faced with emotional labour demands. The study investigated whether certain personality traits are more suitable for the industry by investigating whether certain personality characteristics are related to job engagement or job burnout. In this research study, partial least square (PLS) analyses were utilised to test the formulated hypotheses. Quantitative data was collected from 333 frontline waitrons employed at franchise x in the Western Cape. Data was collected specifically for the purposes of the study and participation was voluntary. The survey was distributed at the branches of franchise x. Managers had a week to facilitate their frontline waitrons in the completion of the surveys. The data was kept confidential and anonymous throughout the study. The survey comprised five sections. The first section asked participants for specific biographical and employment information. Subsequent sections measured specific latent variables applicable to the study utilising reliable and valid measuring instruments. These instruments were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (Naude & Rothmann, 2004), Ultrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004), HEXACO-PI-R (Ashton, Lee, Pozzebon, Visser & Worth, 2010) and the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS) (Van Gelderen, Konijn & Bakker, 2011). Data was subjected to a range of statistical analyses. The findings shed light on the importance of job engagement for frontline waitrons at the branches of franchise x in the Western Cape. The results indicate that proactive management of job and personal resources and job demands may result in desirable outcomes such as increased job engagement and financial returns. The study provides South African industrial psychologists with much needed insight into the presenting problem within the hospitality industry. With reference to the managerial implications and the recommended interventions, industrial psychologists can ensure retention of job engagement and decrease of job burnout among frontline waitrons within the hospitality industry.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die buigsame aard van die diensverskaffingsomgewing het ‘n groot impak gehad op die funksionering van organisasies. Bestuurders het tot die besef gekom dat hulle buigsaam moet wees asook bereid wees om te verander indien hulle op die lange duur wil oorleef. Werknemers is die gereedskap wat diensorganisasies gebruik om ‘n wins in die gasvryheidsbedryf te maak. Die restaurantbedryf is ‘n hoogs mededingende omgewing en bestuurders kan nie swak dienslewering deur hul werknemers bekostig nie. Werknemers wat hoë vlakke van werksbetrokkenheid (job engagement) en lae vlakke van werksuitbranding (job burnout) ervaar, toon superieure prestasie en verhoogde finansiële opbrengste. Die hoofdoelwit van hierdie navorsingstudie was om ‘n strukturele model te ontwikkel en empiries te toets om die antesedente van variansie in werksbetrokkenheid en werksuitbranding onder eerstelynkelners by franchise x in die Wes-Kaap te verklaar. Daarbenewens het die navorsingstudie ook ondersoek of werknemers van deep acting of surface acting gebruik maak wanneer hulle deur emosionele arbeidseise gekonfronteer word. Die studie het ondersoek of sekere persoonlikheidseienskappe meer geskik is vir die bedryf deur te kyk of hulle verwant is aan werksbetrokkenheid of werksuitbranding. In hierdie navorsingstudie is gedeeltelike kleinstekwadrate (partial least squares (PLS)) analises gebruik om die geformuleerde hipoteses te toets. Kwantitatiewe data is verkry vanaf 333 eerstelynkelners wat vir franchise x in die Wes-Kaap werk. Die data is spesifiek vir die doelwitte van die studie versamel en deelname was vrywillig. Die opname is in harde kopie onder die bestuurders van franchise x versprei. Bestuurders het ‘n week gehad om die opname onder hulle eerstelynkelners te versprei vir voltooiing. Die data is as vertroulik beskou en anonimiteit is verseker. Die opname is in vyf dele verdeel. Die eerste gedeelte het die deelnemers se biografiese en indiensnemingsinligting gemeet. Die daaropvolgende dele het spesifieke latente veranderlikes gemeet wat van toepassing was op die studie deur van betroubare en geldige meetinstrumente gebruik te maak. Hierdie instrumente was die Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (Naude & Rothmann, 2004), die Ultrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004), HEXACO-PI-R (Ashton, Lee, Pozzebon, Visser & Worth, 2010) en die Emotional Labour Scale (ELS) (Van Gelderen, Konijn & Bakker, 2011). Data is aan ‘n reeks statistiese analises onderwerp. Die bevindinge werp lig op die belangrikheid daarvan dat eerstelynkelners in franchise x se takke in die Wes-Kaap werksbetrokkenheid ervaar. Die resultate toon dat pro-aktiewe bestuur van werk en persoonlike hulpbronne en werk aanvraag kan lei tot gewenste resultate soos hoër werksbetrokkenheid en finansiële groei. Die studie verskaf Suid-Afrikaanse bedryfsielkundiges met belangrike insigte in die presenterende probleem in die gasvryheidsbedryf. Met verwysing na die bestuursimplikasies en die aanbevole ingrypings, kan bedryfsielkundiges die behoud van werksbetrokkenheid en ‘n vermindering van werksuitbranding onder eerstelynkelners in die gasvryheidsbedryf verseker.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96880
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