Development and change that occurs in table grape berry composition during growth

Sonnekus, Nastassja (2015-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grape quality is important for the producer, exporter and the consumer. Consumers judge table grapes according to their size, colour, taste and shelf life. The consumer’s prerequisites will influence the producer. Therefore, it is essential to know how the table grape berry develops so that it can be manipulated, favouring the postharvest quality and shelf life. This study was performed on Prime and Crimson Seedless, both grafted onto Ramsey, in the Paarl district of South Africa. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify table grape berry development and compositional changes taking place throughout growth and ripening. The effect of sugar:acid ratio on postharvest shelf life was also evaluated. To evaluate whether berry size influenced the measured development parameters, three berry sizes were induced for both cultivars by using plant bioregulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3) and forchlorfenuron – synthetic cytokinin (CPPU) or girdling. The following sizes were obtained for Prime: (i) small berries (<20 mm) with no treatment, which acted as the control; (ii) medium berries (20-24 mm) obtained by 15 ppm GA3 application at 8 mm berry size; (iii) large berries (>24 mm) obtained by combination of 15 ppm GA3 and 1 ppm CPPU application at 8 mm berry size. Crimson Seedless berry sizes were as follows: (i) small berries (<18 mm) with no treatment, which acted as the control; (ii) medium berries (18-22 mm) treated with 10 ppm GA3 at 7 mm berry size; (iii) large berries (>22 mm) treated with 10 ppm GA3 and vines were girdled at 7 mm berry size. To evaluate the effect of sugar:acid ratio on postharvest shelf life, grapes were stored for five weeks at -0.5 ˚C and another week at 7.5˚C. The bunches were evaluated for loose berries, browning, soft tissue breakdown, decay and berry split. The following components were analysed for both cultivars to determine changes in berry composition throughout the season: berry fresh weight, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose, fructose, titratable acidity (TA), tartaric acid, malic acid, abscisic acid (ABA) and total phenols. Total and individual anthocyanins were analysed for Crimson Seedless. Differences were obtained for the three berry sizes for both cultivars. Véraison, representing the start of ripening, started at the same time in successive seasons: 21 days after pea size berry (5 mm berry diameter) for Prime and 28 days after pea size berry (5 mm berry diameter) for Crimson Seedless. A lag stage was not observed, at seven day sampling intervals, for either of the cultivars. Components such as TSS, glucose, fructose and TA content per berry were influenced by berry size in either one or in both seasons for both cultivars. Significant changes in component concentration were detected at the start of, or around véraison. Sugar concentrations (TSS) already started to increase for both cultivars before the start of véraison. At véraison, concentrations of glucose, fructose and ABA increased while concentrations of TA, tartaric acid, malic acid and total phenols decreased. Total anthocyanins in Crimson Seedless started to increase one week after véraison commenced. The main anthocyanin found in Crimson Seedless was peonidin-3-glucoside. During ripening a 1:1 glucose:fructose ratio was detected in both cultivars. Prime tartaric:malic acid ratio was lower than Crimson Seedless tartaric:malic acid ratio in both seasons. Tartaric acid was the main organic acid found in Prime, while malic acid was the main organic acid found in Crimson Seedless. No significant differences were found in the postharvest defects between the different berry sizes. However, tendencies for differences were observed which led to the assumption that medium size berries were more prone to loose berries in both cultivars. Large berries showed a higher percentage berry split for both cultivars. Crimson Seedless second harvest date took place 24 hours after rainfall which could have very likely led to the higher percentages berry defects compared to the first season. Greater berry decay was found with later harvest dates for both cultivars. No significant differences were found for the TSS:TA ratio between the three berry sizes for both cultivars. Postharvest defects were therefore found not only to be influenced by TSS:TA ratio but rather by harvest date and packing procedures. Environmental conditions prior to harvest also had an impact on postharvest shelf life.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Druif kwaliteit is belangrik vir die produsent, uitvoerder en verbruiker. Tafeldruiwe word gekeur deur die verbruiker volgens grootte, kleur, smaak en raklewe. Die verbruiker se voorkeure sal dus die produsent beïnvloed. Daarom is dit belangrik om te weet hoe tafeldruiwe ontwikkel ten einde korrelsamestelling te manipuleer om na-oes kwaliteit en raklewe te kan bevoordeel. Hierdie studie is uitgevoer op Prime en Crimson Seedless, beide geënt op Ramsey, in die Paarl distrik van Suid Afrika. Die doel van die studie is om vas te stel hoe korrelsamestelling gedurende groei en rypwording verander. Die effek van suiker:suurverhouding op na-oes raklewe is ook geëvalueer. Om te kan meet of korrel grootte die gemete parameter beïnvloed is drie korrelgroottes verkry vir albei kultivars deur die gebruik van plant bioreguleerders, te wete gibbereliensuur (GA3) en sintetiese sitokiniene (CPPU), of ringelering. Die volgende korrelgroottes is verkry vir Prime: (i) klein korrels (<20 mm) d.m.v. geen behandeling, geklassifiseerd as kontrole; (ii) medium korrels (20-24 mm) d.m.v. ‘n 15 dpm GA3 behandeling by 8 mm korrelgrootte; (iii) groot korrels (>24 mm) d.m.v. ‘n kombinasie van 15 dpm GA3 en 1 dpm CPPU by 8 mm korrelgrootte. Crimson Seedless korrelgroottes was soos volg: (i) klein korrels (<18 mm) d.m.v. geen behandeling, wat as kontrole gedien het; (ii) medium korrels (18-22 mm) d.m.v. ‘n 10 dpm GA3 behandeling by 7 mm korrelgrootte; (iii) groot korrels (>22 mm) d.m.v. ‘n 10 dpm GA3 behandeling en gelyktydige ringelering by 7 mm korrelgrootte. Om die effek van suiker:suur verhouding op na-oes houvermoë te kon evalueer was druiwe gestoor vir vyf weke by -0.5˚C en ‘n verdere week by 7˚C. Die trosse is geëvalueer vir loskorrels, verbruining, sagte weefsel afbreek, verval en korrelbars. Die volgende komponente is geanaliseer vir albei kultivars om veranderinge in korrelsamestelling gedurende die seisoen te bepaal: vars korrelgewig, totale oplosbare vaste stowwe (suikerinhoud), glukose, fruktose, titreerbare sure, wynsteensuur, appelsuur, absisiensuur en totale fenole. Die totale en individuele antosianiene is ook vir Crimson Seedless gemeet. Beduidende verskille tussen die drie korrelgroottes vir albei kultivars is verkry. Deurslaan, naamlik die begin van rypwording, het op dieselfde dag in opeenvolgende seisoene plaasgevind: 21 dae na ertjiekorrel grootte (5 mm korrel deursnee) vir Prime en 28 dae na ertjiekorrel grootte (5 mm korrel deursnee) vir Crimson Seedless. In teenstelling met die tipiese korrel ontwikkelingspatroon is ‘n rusfase nie waargeneem by beide kultivars nie. Komponente soos suikerinhoud, glukose, fruktose en titreerbare suur inhoud per korrel is deur korrelgrootte beïnvloed in een of albei seisoene vir beide kultivars. Suiker konsentrasie van albei kultivars het reeds voor deurslaan begin toeneem. By deurslaan het die konsentrasies van glukose, fruktose en absisiensuur inhoud toegeneem, terwyl die konsentraies van titreerbare sure, wynsteensuur, appelsuur en totale fenole gedaal het. Totale antosianiene in Crimson Seedless het ‘n week na deurslaan begin toeneem. Die hoof antosianien in Crimson Seedless is peonidien-3-glukosied. Gedurende rypwording was daar ‘n 1:1 glukose:fruktose verhouding gevind vir beide kultivars. In terme van sure is Prime se wynsteensuur:appelsuur verhouding laer as in Crimson Seedless vir albei seisoene. Wynsteensuur is die hoof organiese suur in Prime terwyl appelsuur die hoof organiese suur in Crimson Seedless is. Geen betekenisvolle verskille vir na-oes houvermoë tussen korrelgroottes is waargeneem vir beide kultivars nie. Daar was egter tendense wat aanleiding gegee het in die aanname dat medium grootte korrels geneig is tot loskorrels in albei kultivars. Groot korrels het ‘n hoër korrelbars persentasie getoon vir beide kultivars. Crimson Seedless se tweede oes het plaasgevind 24 uur na reënval, wat aanleiding gegee het tot hoër persentasies korrelbederf. Hoër persentasie korrelbederf was ook gevind met later oesdatums. Geen beduidende verskille is gevind vir suiker:suur verhouding tussen die drie korrelgroottes vir beide kultivars nie. Dus word na-oes houvermoë nie net deur suiker:suur verhouding beïnvloed nie, maar ook deur oestyd en verpakkingsprodsedures. Omgewingsomstandighede voor oes kan ook na-oes houvermoë beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96871
This item appears in the following collections: