Genetic assessment of five breeding populations of abalone (Haliotis midae) through a comparative Performance Testing Scheme

Vlok, Arnoldus Christiaan (2015-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cultured abalone in South Africa is undomesticated. For the local industry to remain competitive on the international markets it is essential to improve production. This study is part of a selective breeding component of a larger genetic programme that aims to enhance productivity of the local industry by genetic improvement of growth rates. Selective breeding programmes are based on genetic variation and correlations. Molecular studies proved genetic differentiation exist between the broodstock- and offspring populations and among the offspring populations used in this study. Five commercial abalone farms from the Walker bay region each entered 3000 randomly selected animals obtained from synchronised mass spawning of conditioned broodstock into a Performance Recording Scheme (PRS). Microsatellite marker analysis proved these broodstock populations to be representative of the wild populations. The five cohorts were assessed over the five locations represented by three replicates per location with 200 randomly assigned animals per replicate. The average growth rate was used as growth performance parameter by measuring shell length and body weight at three month intervals over a period of 24 months. Interaction was observed between cohort and location effects when analysing the full data set. This was unexpected as the cohorts were constructed from parent stick that was randomly sampled from the same geographical area, the larger Walker bay. The factors suspected of causing this observed interaction were considered in a stepwise analysis. Initial and progressive tag loss, differences in initial size of animals entered into the study and on-farm management errors were considered as possible causes of the observed interaction in a stepwise analysis. Statistically significant differences were observed between the five cohorts and between the five locations in terms of length and weight growth rates. Based on these findings it is advised that a central facility is used to effectively compare the growth rates of different cohorts or populations. Any future research in selective breeding to follow this study should involve the integration of molecular techniques and biotechnologies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Suid-Afrika is gekweekte perlemoen wild. Vir die plaaslike bedryf om op die internasionale markte kompeterend te bly, is dit noodsaaklik om produksie te verbeter. Hierdie studie vorm deel van ’n selektiewe telingskomponent van ‘n groter genetiese program met die doel om die produktiwiteit van die plaaslike bedryf deur die genetiese verbetering van groeitempo’s te verbeter. Selektiewe teelprogramme word gebaseer op genetiese variasie en korrelasies. Molekulêre studies het bewys dat daar genetiese differensiasie bestaan tussen die teel- en nageslagpopulasies en onder die nageslagpopulasies wat in hierdie studie gebruik is. Vyf kommersiële perlemoenplase in die Walkerbaaistreek het elk 3000 ewekansig geselekteerde diere vanaf gesinkroniseerde massa broei van gekondisioneerde teelpopulasies aan ‘n Performance Recording Scheme (PRS) bygedra. Mikrosatelliet merker-analise het bewys dat hierdie teelpopulasies verteenwoordigend is van die wilde populasies. Die vyf kohorte is oor die vyf liggings geassesseer, elkeen waarvan verteenwoordig is deur drie replikate bestaande uit 200 ewekansig toegedeelde diere per replikaat. Die gemiddelde groeitempo is gebruik as die groeiprestasieparameter deur skulplengte en liggaamsgewig elke drie maande oor ‘n tydperk van 24 maande te meet. Daar is interaksie waargeneem tussen kohort- en liggingseffekte toe die volledige datastel geanaliseer is. Hierdie was onverwags, aangesien die kohorte gekonstrueer is uit teelouers waarvan monsters ewekansig vanuit dieselfde geografiese gebied, naamlik die groter Walkerbaai, geneem is. Die faktore wat vermoedelik hierdie waargenome interaksie veroorsaak het, is in ‘n stapsgewyse analise beskou. Aanvanklike en progressiewe merkerverlies, verskille in die aanvanklike grootte van die diere wat in die studie ingesluit is en bestuursfoute op die plaas is as moontlike oorsake van die waargenome interaksie voorgestel. Statisties betekenisvolle verskille is tussen die vyf genotipes en tussen die vyf liggings in terme van lengte en gewigsgroeitempo’s waargeneem. Op grond van hierdie bevindings word daar voorgestel dat ‘n sentrale fasiliteit gebruik word om die groeitempo’s van die verskillende genotipes of populasies doeltreffend te vergelyk. Enige toekomstige navorsing oor selektiewe teelt wat op hierdie studie sou volg, moet die integrasie van molekulêre tegnieke en biotegnologieë behels.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96870
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