The effect of fatigue protocols on knee control during functional activities
Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction ACL injuries are among the most serious injuries that professional and amateur sports men and women sustain. More than 120 000 ACL injuries occur annually in the USA alone. The highest incidence of ACL injuries are seen in multi-directional and multi-factorial sports such as soccer, basketball, lacrosse, American football, rugby and Australian rules football. It is hoped that the proposed review will clarify issues relating to the effect of fatigue on knee control, as it will focus on multiple movements found in different sporting codes. By including both studies on healthy adults as well as subjects who have sustained ACL injuries, a clearer picture can be formed on the global effect of fatigue on knee control. Objective The objective of this review was to identify, collate and analyse the current evidence on the effect of fatigue protocols on knee control during functional tasks, such as side-stepping, bilateral jumping/landing and crossover-cutting. Methodology A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted between April 2013 and August 2013 (updated in April 2014) for eligible articles for inclusion in the review. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist. Results Ten studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The included studies reported a wide variety of fatigue protocols. Several different test movements were utilised in the studies. The test movements included cutting movements, drop jumps, stop jumps, vertical jumps, bilateral drop landing and rotational movements. The overall results indicated that fatigue had a negative impact on knee control. There were however studies which reported conflicting results. Gender differences were also highlighted in the results of included studies where it became evident that females tend to be more susceptible to knee injuries due to altered kinematics as a result of fatigue. Conclusion Fatigue generally seems to affect knee control negatively across various fatigue protocols. Future research should investigate using a standardised fatigue protocol to achieve more accurate and consistent results during the different functional activities.
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