The relationships between engagement, burnout and performance in an e-commerce retail company

Fouche, Erica (2015-04)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is the role of the Industrial Psychologist and the Human Resources function within a company to contribute positively to an organisation’s competitive advantage. Human capital should be viewed and managed as a critical success factor within this context. The probability of attaining success over competitors could be addressed through focussing on the impact of employee performance on competitive advantage. With reference to the organisational life cycle, the e-commerce industry in South Africa seems to be in its infancy. It is in this stage when attaining high levels of performance from employees is of critical importance. In this lies the key for building and growing a competitive advantage that would set one organisation apart from the other – where one organisation would survive the infancy stage and another would drown in the quest to match the demands posed by the relevant industry and its customers. There is minimal Industrial or Organisational Psychology research that has tested hypotheses in the e-commerce industry. This contributed to the decision to implement this research in the e-commerce industry. The e-commerce industry is growing rapidly, and performance therefore is a key factor for success in any e-commerce company in South Africa. The focus of this study was to review the Job Demands Resources model (JD-R model) within the e-commerce retail industry in South Africa in order to add to the knowledge base regarding human behaviour at work, with specific reference to engagement, burnout and performance. The research question of the study was formulated regarding which “state of wellbeing” would increase performance. The JD-R model makes provision for evaluating this question in a structured manner. The JD-R model indicates that performance is influenced by work engagement/burnout (wellbeing). It also indicates that there are certain job demands, job resources and personal resources that will influence wellbeing. The study was facilitated through the use of an ex post facto correlational research design. A sample of 117 workers was chosen from the e-commerce retail industry to participate in the study. Participation was voluntary, the data was collected specifically for the purpose of this study, and all responses were treated confidentially. The measurements that were used included key performance indicators (KPIs), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS), the Job Characteristics Scale, and the HEXACO model. The literature review formed a logical argument that culminated in a theoretical Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za iii model as well as a set of hypotheses with reference to the various dimensions in the JD-R model. The results showed that: a) Engagement has a significant positive influence on performance. b) Job resources (advancement, personal growth and organisational support) have a significant positive influence on engagement. c) Job resources (advancement, personal growth and organisational support) have a significant negative influence on burnout. d) Personal resources (extraversion) have a significant negative influence on burnout. e) Personal resources (conscientiousness) have a significant positive influence on engagement. f) Personal resources (agreeableness) have a significant negative influence on burnout. The following hypotheses were not supported: a) Burnout has a significant negative influence on performance. b) Personal resources (extraversion) have a significant positive influence on engagement. c) Personal resources (emotionality) have a significant positive influence on engagement. d) Personal resources (emotionality) have a significant negative influence on burnout. e) Personal resources (conscientiousness) have a significant negative influence on burnout. f) Personal resources (agreeableness) have a significant positive influence on engagement. g) Job demands (job overload) have a significant negative influence on engagement. h) Job demands (job overload) have a significant positive influence on burnout. i) Job demands (job insecurity) have a significant negative influence on engagement. j) Job demands (job insecurity) have a significant positive influence on burnout. Attention was also paid to future research considerations, recommendations to the managers of employees and to the limitations of the study.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit is die rol van die Bedryfsielkundige en die Menslike Hulpbronne funksie in maatskappye om 'n positiewe bydrae tot 'n organisasie se mededingende voordeel te maak. Menslike kapitaal moet beskou en bestuur word as ‘n kritiese sukses faktor in hierdie konteks. Die waarskynlikheid om sukses bo die kompetisie te behaal kan aangespreek word deur om fokus te plaas op die impak wat werknemersprestasie het op mededingings voordeel. Met verwysing na die organisatoriese lewenssiklus blyk die e-handelbedryf in Suid-Afrika om in sy beginstadium te wees. Dit is in hierdie stadium waar die bereiking van hoë vlakke van prestasie van werknemers van kritieke belang is. Hierin lê die sleutel vir die vordering en groei van 'n mededingende voordeel van een maatskappy bo ‘n ander - waar die een organisasie die beginstadium sou oorleef en die ander onder die druk van die versoeke/eise van die betrokke bedryf en sy kliënte sou swyk. Daar is ‘n beperkte hoeveelheid navorsing wat gevind kon word in die veld van Bedryfsielkunde wat hipoteses in die e-handelbedryf toets. Hierdie bevinding het bygedra tot die besluit om hierdie navorsingstudie oor die e-handelbedryf voort te sit. Die e-handelbedryf toon vinnige groei, en prestasie is dus tans 'n belangrike faktor vir sukses in enige e-handelmaatskappy in Suid-Afrika. Die fokus van hierdie navorsingstudie was om die “Job Demands Resources model (JD-R model)” in die e-kleinhandelbedryf in Suid-Afrika toe te pas om sodoende by te dra tot die huidige kennis beskikbaar ten opsigte van menslike gedrag by die werk, met spesifieke verwysing na werksbegeestering, uitbranding en prestasie. Die navorsingsvraag van die navorsingstudie is geformuleer rondom die aanname dat die "toestand van welsyn" prestasievlakke sal verhoog. Die primêre doel van die navorsingstudie was om deur middel van die toepassing van die JD-R model in die e-kleinhandelbedryf, by te dra tot die beskikbare kennis ten opsigte van menslike gedrag by die werk, met spesifieke verwysing na werksbetrokkenheid, uitbranding en prestasie. Die JD-R model maak op 'n gestruktureerde wyse voorsiening vir die evaluering van hierdie verhoudings. Die JD-R model dui aan dat prestasie beïnvloed word deur werksbetrokkenheid/uitbranding (welsyn). Dit dui ook dat daar sekere werksvereistes, werkshulpbronne en persoonlike hulpbronne is wat welstand beïnvloed. Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za v Die navorsingstudie is gefasiliteer deur die gebruik van 'n ex post facto korrelasie-ontwerp. 'n Steekproef van 117 werkers is uit die e-kleinhandelbedryf gekies om aan die studie deel te neem. Deelname was vrywillig, die data is spesifiek ingesamel vir die doel van hierdie navorsingstudie en alle data is as vertroulik hanteer. Die volgende metingsinstrumente is gebruik: kern prestasie aanwysers (KPA’s), die Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), die Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS), die Job Characteristics Scale, en die HEXACO model. Die literatuuroorsig vorm 'n logiese argument wat lei tot 'n teoretiese model, sowel as 'n stel hipoteses met verwysing na die verskillende dimensies soos gevind in die JD-R model. Die resultate toon: a) Werksbetrokkenheid het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op prestasie. b) Werkshulpbronne (bevordering, persoonlike groei en organisatoriese ondersteuning) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. c) Werkshulpbronne (bevordering, persoonlike groei en organisatoriese ondersteuning) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op uitbranding. d) Persoonlike hulpbronne (ekstroversie) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op uitbranding. e) Persoonlike hulpbronne (pligsgetrouheid) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. f) Persoonlike hulpbronne (eenstemmigheid) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op uitbranding. Die volgende hipoteses was nie aanvaar nie: a) Uitbranding het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op prestasie. b) Persoonlike hulpbronne (ekstroversie) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. c) Persoonlike hulpbronne (emosionaliteit) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. d) Persoonlike hulpbronne (emosionaliteit) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op uitbranding. e) Persoonlike hulpbronne (pligsgetrouheid) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op uitbranding. f) Persoonlike hulpbronne (eenstemmigheid) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za vi g) Werksvereistes (oorlading) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. h) Werksvereistes (oorlading) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op uitbranding. i) Werksvereistes (werkonsekerheid) het ‘n beduidende negatiewe invloed op werksbetrokkenheid. j) Werksvereistes (werkonsekerheid) het ‘n beduidende positiewe invloed op uitbranding. Aandag is ook geskenk aan toekomstige navorsings oorwegings, aanbevelings aan die bestuurders van werknemers asook aan die beperkinge van die navorsinstudie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96792
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