CFD modelling of ogee spillway hydraulics and comparison with physical model tests

Kanyabujinja, Nshuti Placide (2015-03)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Modern Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling (CFD) are becoming common design and analysis tools in the engineering field. Nowadays, project designs involve the use of CFD techniques along with physical scale modelling to analyse the complex rapidly varied and turbulent flows which would not be easily analysed by physical modelling. In particular, the consideration and/or use of CFD modelling in the Hydraulic Engineering field remains on the increase. Apart from being used for comparison with other design techniques, CFD may in future become a standalone modelling technique in hydraulic structures design. This research aims to use CFD models to validate the simulation of the flow over two ogee dam spillways which are installed in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Stellenbosch University. To achieve this simulation of the flow which involves an interaction between water and air, the flow behaviour has been mapped by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) and the realisable "𝑘−𝜀" turbulence numerical models. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) and the realisable "𝑘−𝜀" models simulate the free surface of two-phase flow and the flow turbulence, respectively. Firstly, the study embarks with details on the actual design approaches of a typical ogee dam spillway. It subsequently presents the geometry and dimensions of the physical models, the testing procedure and the experimental test results achieved from this modelling exercise. For CFD modelling, a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, Ansys-Fluent, was used. To model the physical model, the use of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in combination with the realisable k-ε eddy-viscosity closure model was adopted. The process of CFD model development and the underlying theory of it are discussed in this thesis. Different test scenarios including steady and fully hydrodynamic states simulation for two and three-dimensional geometries were considered in this simulation to achieve the most accurate results. In order to determine the required mesh size, the mesh sensitivity tests were conducted on the 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional models. Finally, the pressure readings and water levels produced by numerical models are discussed through a validation process by comparing the CFD model results with the results obtained from physical models. The outcome proved that CFD models are able to map the behaviour of both flow phases since they exhibited a close correlation to those achieved in the physical models. Even though some slight differences in values were revealed, the graphical trend remains reasonably similar for all test results.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Moderne gerekenariseerde vloeidinamika numeriese modelle (CFD) word deesdae dikwels deur ingenieurs gebruik. Projekontwerpe sluit tans die gebruik van CFD tegnieke asook fisiese skaalmodellering in om komplekse, vinnig-veranderede en turbulente vloei te ontleed. Hierdie tipe vloeie is moeilik om met fisiese modellering te ontleed. Die gebruik van CFD numeriese modelle in hidrouliese ingenieurswese is besig om toe te neem, Die bevindinge van CFD modelering word tans vergelyk met die bevindinge van ander ontwerptegnieke, maar in die toekoms mag dit moontlik gebruik word as die enigste modelleringstegniek in hidrouliese struktuurontwerp. Die doel met hierdie navorsing is om CFD modelering te gebruik om die vloei oor twee ogee-vormige afvoergeute wat in die hidrouliese labrotorium van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch ge-installeer is, te ondersoek. Ten einde hierdie vloei, wat die interaksie tussen water en lug insluit, te simuleer, is die vloeigedrag deur ”volume van vloeistof” (VOF) en die "𝑘−𝜀" turbulensie numeriese modules, gemodeleer. Die VOF en "𝑘−𝜀" numeriese modules simuleer onderskeidelik die vry oppervlakte vloei van die twee-fase vloei en turbulente vloei. Die ontwerp van ’n tipiese ”ogee”-tipe dam oorloop word bespreek, gevolg deur die beskrywing van die geometrie van die fisiese modelle, die toetsprosedure en die eksperimentele toetsresultate. Vir die CFD modellering is die CFD pakket, Ansys-Fluent, gebruik. Vir die simulering van die fisiese model is die Reynolds-gemiddeld Navier-Stokes vergelykings tesame met die k-ε eddy-viskositeit geslote module gebruik. Die proses van CFD ontwikkeling en die onderliggende teorie daarvan word bespreek. Verskillende toets-scenario’s wat 2D en 3D simulasies insluit, uitgevoer. Ten einde die toepaslike berekeningsrooster grootte vir die numeriese model te verkry, is sensitiewiteitstoetse uitgevoer op die twee- en drie-dimensionele numeriese modelle. Laastens is die CFD numeries gesimuleerde drukke en die watervlakke met die van die fisiese modelle vergelyk om die akkuraatheid van die CFD resultate te verkry. Die uitkomstes het getoon dat CFD modelle gebruik kan word om die gedrag van albei vloei fases te simuleer aangesien dit goed vergelyk het met die uitkomstes van die fisiese modellering. Daar was wel klein verskille in die druk waardes, maar die tendense in drukverspreiding was ooreenstemmend.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96787
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