Measuring household food security status in Taraba State, Nigeria : comparing key indicators

Ike, Chinweoke Uzoamaka (2015-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Achieving food security and reducing hunger requires comprehensive measurement for proper identification of the food insecure, the severity of food insecurity, its causes, and progress in reducing food insecurity. Measuring food security is challenging due to its multidimensional nature as all four dimensions (availability, access, utilisation, and stability) need to be achieved simultaneously. Comprehensive measurement has not been achieved as most existing indicators have a unidimensional focus and efforts to find a ‘composite indicator’ (a catch all measurement tool) have thus far been unsuccessful. This study therefore identified how the three most widely used indicators of food security, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and the Coping Strategies Index (CSI), can complement one other in capturing the multiple dimensions of food security. The study brought them together in one cross-sectional household survey of 409 randomly selected households in Taraba State, Nigeria. The results show that 69 percent of households in Taraba had a very low food security status, 23 percent had low food security, and 8 percent had high or marginal food security. About 34 percent of the households used very erosive coping strategies. Very low food security status was found to be associated with: a household head who is a farmer, less educated, or divorced; low household income and expenditure; large household size; and not owning large plots of land. The survey revealed that most households that obtain the greater proportion of their food from own production, and spend most of their income on the purchase of starchy staples were in the very low food security category. Those that sourced their food mainly through purchase, and spent more on fresh fruit and vegetables, meat, fish, eggs, and processed foods were in the high or marginal food security category. The study showed that the key indicators followed a clear complementary pattern. The bivariate analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.01) in DDS and CSI across HFIAS categories. The HFIAS very low food security category is characterised by the lowest food diversity and highest CSI, revealing that the depth of food insecurity is intense among the extreme group. The study demonstrated that these three indicators can be used together for a fuller understanding of the relationships between the different dimensions of food security, and recommended more studies in using complementary indicators to measure food security. This thesis is presented as the two academic articles option: the first article reviews the measurement of food security and complementarity of the three measures, while the second article discusses the findings of the survey.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bereiking van voedselsekerheid en die bekamping van hongersnood vereis omvattende meting vir die korrekte identifikasie van voedselonsekerheid, die erns daarvan, die oorsake daarvan, en die proses van voedselonsekerheidvermindering. Die meting van voedselsekerheid is ʼn uitdaging as gevolg van die multidimensionele aard daarvan, aangesien die onderskeie dimensies (beskikbaarheid, toegang, benutting, en stabiliteit) tegelyktydig bereik moet word. Omvattende meting is nog nie bereik nie, aangesien bestaande aanwysers ʼn eendimensionele fokus het, en aangesien pogings om ʼn ‘saamgestelde aanwyser’ (‘n allesomvattende metingsinstrument) te vind, tot dusver onsuksesvol was. Hierdie studie het dus geïdentifiseer hoe die drie mees algemene aanwysers vir voedselsekerheid, naamlik die Huishoudelike Voedselonsekerheid Toegangskaal (HFIAS), die Dieetkundige Diversiteitstelling (DDS) en die Hanteringstrategieë Indeks (CSI), mekaar kan aanvul om die verskeie dimensies van voedselsekuriteit vas te vang. Die studie het die bogenoemde instrumente saam geïmplementeer in ʼn deursnee-huishoudelike opname van 409 ewekansig-geselekteerde huishoudings in Taraba Staat, Nigerië. Die resultate het 69 persent van huishoudings in Taraba met ‘n baie lae voedselsekerheid-status getoon, 23 persent met ʼn lae voedselsekerheid-status, en 8 persent met ʼn hoë of geringe voedselsekerheid-status. Ongeveer 34 persent van die huishoudings het baie verwerende hanteringsstrategieë gebruik. Baie lae voedselsekerheid-status is bevind om meer geassosieer te word met: ʼn huishoudelike hoof wat ʼn boer is, minder opgevoed is, of geskei is; waar daar lae huishoudelike inkomste en uitgawes teenwoordig is; ʼn groot huishoudelike grootte; en die nie-besitting van eiendom. Die opname het geopenbaar dat die meeste huishoudings wat die grootter proporsie van hulle voedsel vanaf eie produksie verkry, en die meeste van hulle inkomste op die aankoop van styselagtige stapelvoedsel spandeer, in die baie lae voedselsekerheid-kategorie geval het. Diegene wat hulle voedsel hoofsaaklik deur aankope verkry het, en meer spandeer het op vars vrugte, groente, vleis, vis, eiers en geprosesseerde kosse, was in die hoë/ geringe voedselsekerheid kategorie. Die studie het bevind dat die sleutelaanwysers ʼn duidelike aanvullende patroon gevolg het. Die tweeveranderlike ontleding het ʼn beduidende verskil (P<0.01) in DDS en CSI oor HFIAS-kategorieë getoon. Die HIFIAS baie lae voedselsekerheidkategorie word gekenmerk deur die laagste voedseldiversiteit en hoogste CSI, wat openbaar dat die diepte van voedselonsekerheid intensief is onder die uiterste groep. Die studie het gedemonstreer dat hierdie drie aanwysers saam gebruik kan word om ʼn beter begrip van die verhoudings tussen die verskillende dimensies van voedselsekuriteit te verkry, en daar is aanbeveel dat meer navorsing onderneem word aangaande die gebruik van aanvullende aanwysers om voedselsekuriteit te meet. Hierdie tesis word aangebied as die twee-akademiese-artikels opsie: die eerste artikel bied ʼn oorsig van die meting van voedselsekerheid en die aanvullendheid van die drie instrumente, terwyl die tweede artikel die bevindinge van die studie bespreek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96765
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