Coupled fully three-dimensional mathematical modelling of sediment deposition and erosion in reservoirs

Sawadogo, Ousmane (2015-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The investigation of reservoir sedimentation has become an important and valuable research topic in engineering practice. Sediment deposition in reservoirs can affect ood levels, drainage for agriculture land, pumpstation and hydropower operation and navigation. An extensive review of the technical literature pertaining to suspended sediment transports as well as deposited sediment ushing from reservoirs has shown that most studies on sediment are still based on empirical formulas and experimental work, despite the availability of sophisticated computers. This is because sediment transport and particularly sediment deposition and erosion are complex processes, that involve the interaction of many physical factors which are not easily modelled numerically. In addition, most of the existing three-dimensional numerical models are not coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. They first simulate the velocity field and water depth and then the concentration and bed change are calculated. Furthermore, they are not fully three-dimensional models for using layer-averaged approaches in conjunction with Saint-Venant equations. The key objective of the present research was to develop a coupled fully three-dimensional (3D) numerical model based on Navier-Stokes equations which includes both the sediment transport component and hydrodynamic parameters. In this regard, a physical model was set up in a laboratory ume in order to investigate the bottom outlet sediment ushing under pressure in a controlled environment. The proposed coupled fully 3D numerical model was used to simulate the experimental tests. Results from these simulations were in good agreement with the measurements. The geometric features of the scour hole (temporal and spatial hole development) upstream of the bottom outlet were reasonably well predicted compared to the experimental data. Furthermore, the velocity field upstream of the bottom outlet was in good agreement with measurements. The proposed numerical model can be considered reliable provided that the model is correctly set up to reflect the condition of a particular case study. Finally, the coupled fully 3D numerical model for turbulent suspended sediment transport in reservoirs was validated against a range of typical reservoir sediment transport and deposition laboratory flume cases. The proposed suspended sediment transport model successfully predicted both sediment deposition and entrainment processes and therefore, it can be used for turbulent suspended sediment transport assessments in reservoirs.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ondersoek van damtoeslikking het 'n belangrike navorsing onderwerp in ingenieurswese praktyk geword. Sedimentdeponering in damme kan vloed vlakke, dreinering van landbo grond sowel as pompstasie en hidrokrag werking en navigasie benvloed. 'n Omvattende ontleding van die tegniese literatuur met betrekking tot gesuspendeerde sedimentvervoer asook die spoel van gedeponeerde sediment uit reservoirs het getoon dat die meeste studies oor sediment steeds op empiriese formules en eksperimentele werk gebaseer is, ten spyte van die beskikbaarheid van gesofistikeerde rekenaars. Dit is omdat sedimentvervoer en veral sedimentafsetting en -erosie komplekse prosesse is, wat die interaksie van baie fisiese faktore behels en nie moeiteloos numeries gemodelleer kan word nie. Daarbenewens, in die meeste van die bestaande drie -dimensionele numeriese modelle is die hidrodinamika en sedimentvervoer modelle nie gekoppel nie. Die numeriese modelle simuleer eerstens die snelheid veld en waterdiepte en dan word die sedimentkonsentrasie en bedverandering bereken. Verder is die bestaande modelle nie ten volle driedimensioneel nie, en gebruik laag-gemiddelde benadering in samewerking met Saint- Venant vergelykings. Die hoofdoelwit van die huidige navorsing was om 'n gekoppelde volle drie -dimensionele (3D) numeriese model gebaseer op Navier -Stokes-vergelykings wat beide die sediment vervoer komponent en hidrodinamiese parameters insluit, te ontwikkel. In hierdie verband is 'n fisiese model opgestel in 'n laboratorium kanaal om die bodem uitlaat spoel van sediment onder druk in 'n beheerde omgewing te ondersoek. Die voorgestelde gekoppelde 3D numeriese model is gebruik om die eksperimentele toetse na te boots. Resultate van hierdie simulasies het goed ooreengestem met die metings. Die geometriese eienskappe van die erosie gat (tyd en ruimtelike gatontwikkeling) stroomop van die bodemuitlaat was redelik goed voorspel vergeleke met die eksperimentele data. Verder is die snelheid veld stroomop van die bodem uitlaat ook goed voorspel. Die voorgestelde numeriese model kan beskou word as betroubaar met die wete dat die model korrek opgestel is om die toestand van 'n bepaalde gevallestudie te weerspiel. Ten slotte, is n gekoppelde 3D numeriese model vir turbulente gesuspendeerde sediment vervoer in reservoirs ontwikkel en getoets teen 'n reeks laboratorium kanaal eksperimente. Die voorgestelde gesuspendeerde sediment vervoer model voorspel suksesvol beide die sediment afsetting- en erosieprosesse en daarom kan dit gebruik word vir die simulasie van turbulente gesuspendeerde sediment vervoer in damme.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96707
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