Correlation of post mortem LODOX digital radiological images with histopathological findings at autopsy : a prospective autopsy study at the Tygerberg Forensic Pathology Service Facility

Quarrie, Karisha Claudia (2015-04)

Thesis (MMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: The LODOX Statscan is a whole-body digital X-ray scanning device which was adapted for medical usage. The LODOX has an established role in the field of Forensic Pathology where it shows high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of skeletal pathology and foreign bodies. The role of the scanner in the detection of soft tissue pathology in the lungs of adults has not been reported and this study aims to review the radio-pathological correlation and the applicability of LODOX as a viable screening tool in the detection of lung pathology in post mortem cases. Methods: We prospectively reviewed cases which were referred for medico-legal autopsy between November 2012 and March 2013 to the Tygerberg Forensic Pathology Service mortuary, Cape Town, South Africa. All cases meeting the prescribed inclusion criteria underwent LODOX scanning as well as macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the lungs as permitted by the Inquests Act 58 of 1959. The macroscopic and microscopic variables were considered the “gold standard” when compared with the results of the LODOX. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were assessed. Results: One hundred and fifty nine cases (159) were included in the study. The most common radiographic patterns reported were the presence of ground glass opacities and consolidation. Overall, low to moderate sensitivity of these LODOX patterns in the prediction of pneumonic microscopic pathology (oedema, acute and chronic inflammation and features of diffuse alveolar damage) was noted. These values were lower than that reported for pneumonia using conventional X-rays. Additionally, these LODOX patterns have a high probability of representing oedema or autolytic/decomposition change. Pneumothorax was the most common pleural pathology detected on LODOX, but autopsy correlation could not be performed. Poor to no correlation was noted with the variables of cavity, malignant tumour, and bronchiectasis, but the prevalence of these conditions in our cohort was low. In general, LODOX predictions were better at excluding pathology which was not present rather than confirming pathology which was present. Conclusions: The LODOX offers excellent evidentiary value in the demonstration of a pneumothorax but currently has limited value as a “stand alone” test in the field of Forensic Pathology. However the continued use of the LODOX as an adjunct examination, as well as prospective study of its applicability, is advised.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Die LODOX Statscan is ‘n heel-liggaam digitale X-straal skandeer apparaat wat aangepas is vir mediese gebruik. Die LODOX het ‘n gevestigde rol in Geregtelike Patologie, waar dit ‘n hoë sensitiwiteit en spesifisiteit het in die opsporing van skeletale patologie en vreemde voorwerpe. Die rol van die skandeerder in die opspoor van sagte weefsel patologie in die longe van volwassenes is nog nie gerapporteer nie, en hierdie studie ondersoek die radio-patologiese korrelasie en toepaslikheid van LODOX as ‘n doeltreffende siftingsmeganisme om long patologie op te spoor in post-mortale gevalle. Metode: Gevalle wat verwys is na die Tygerberg Geregtelike Patologie Diens lykshuis in Kaapstad, Suid-Afrika vir medies-geregtelike outopsies tussen November 2012 en Maart 2013, is prospektief geëvalueer. Alle gevalle wat die voorgeskrewe insluitingskriteria nagekom het, het LODOX skandering asook makroskopiese en mikroskopiese ondersoek van die longe ondergaan, soos toegelaat deur die Wet op Geregtelike Doodsondersoeke Nr 58 van 1959. Die makroskopiese en mikroskopiese veranderlikes is beskou as die “goud standaard” in vergelyking met die resultate van die LODOX. Die sensitiwiteit, spesifisiteit, positiewe en negatiewe voorspellingswaardes is beoordeel. Resultate: Eenhonderd-nege-en-vyftig gevalle (159) is ingesluit in die studie. Die algemeenste radiografiese pattroon wat gerapporteer is, was die teenwoordigheid van gemaalde glas opasiteit en konsolidasie. In geheel is lae to matige sensitiwiteit van hierdie LODOX beelde waargeneem in die voorspelling van pneumoniese mikroskopiese patologie (edeem, akute en chroniese ontsteking, en eienskappe van diffuse alveolêre skade). Hierdie waardes was laer as die wat gerapporteer is vir pneumonie met konvensionele X-strale. Verder het hierdie LODOX beelde ‘n hoë waarskynlikheid om edeem en/of outolise/ontbinding uit te beeld. Pneumotoraks was die algemeenste pleurale patologie wat waargeneem is met die LODOX, maar outopsie korrelasie kon nie gedoen word nie. Swak tot geen korrelasie is gemerk vir die veranderlikes kaviteit, maligne tumor en brongi-ektase, maar die prevalensie van hierdie toestande in ons kohort was laag. Oor die algemeen was LODOX voorspellings beter om patologie wat nie teenwoordig is nie, uit te skakel, eerder as om patologie wat teenwoordig is, te bevestig. Gevolgtrekking: The LODOX is ‘n uitstekende bewysstuk in die aantoon van ‘n pneumotoraks, maar huidiglik het dit beperkte waarde as onafhanklike toets in die veld van Geregtelike Patologie. Desnieteenstaande word die verdere gebruik van LODOX as bydraende ondersoek, sowel as die prospektiewe studie van sy toepaslikheid aanbeveel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96682
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