Video Surveillance Incorporating Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras

Holtzhausen, Petrus Jacobus (2015-03)

Thesis (DSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : When trespassers target businesses and homes, outdoor spaces are typically the first point of illegal entry. Camera systems can help secure these environments, but typically many cameras are needed to cover large areas. In practice most camera systems are only used to review events after they have happened. It is however possible to do much more, and we explore the paradigm of active monitoring where cameras detect trespassers and give visual verification of the alarm. This detection needs to be resilient to weather effects and other environmental noise, while running in real-time on high resolution video sequences. Our goal is to replace multiple static cameras with a single Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera that can monitor expansive terrain. These cameras can survey, detect and zoom in on objects of interest. We develop and implement a robust, real-time algorithm based on an interaction framework between an illumination invariant and a color based background model. We also developed and implemented a novel technique where we use optical flow motion vectors to determine the size and shape of the spatial Gaussian kernels in non parametric models. Although computationally more expensive we demonstrate these more sophisticated models can be more robust. These ideas are adapted for PTZ cameras, exploiting their pan, tilt and zoom capabilities. We apply background modeling on panorama images that inform PTZ camera movement. By this we discuss the construction of a system that secures perimeters using zooming camera analytics.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Wanneer oortreders besighede en huise onwettig betree, is die buite omgewing tipies die eerste punt van toegang. Kameras kan aansienlik help om hierdie omgewings te beveilig, maar mens kort groot aantal kameras as jy groot spasies wil monitor. Meeste kamera sisteme word ook net gebruik om die gebeurtenisse na die tyd te besigtig. Ons ondersoek die moontlikheid van aktiewe monitering wat oortreders intyds kan identifiseer. Hierdie deteksie moet robuus wees teen weersomstandighede en ander omgewingseffekte, en moet intyds hardloop op hoë resolusie video sekwensies. Die uiteindelike doel is om 'n groot aantal statiese kameras te vervang met een Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) kamera wat 'n groot terrein kan dek. Hierdie kameras kan rondkyk en in zoem op relevante voorwerpe. Ons begin deur intydse robuuste monitering te verbeter gebaseer op die kombinasie van illuminasie invariante en kleur gebasseerde modelle. Ons stel dan 'n nuwe tegniek voor om optiese vloei vektore te gebruik om Gaussiese verspreidings se vorm en orientasie te bepaal vir nie-parametriese modelle. Ons pas hierdie idees aan vir gebruik op PTZ kameras. Dit behels onder andere die ontwikkeling van panoramiese agtergrond modelle. Ons gebruik die PTZ eienskappe om die opgespoorde indringers in detail te monitor. Van hier kan ons die PTZ kamera se beweging beheer volgens enige deteksies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96653
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