2018-12-11 12:00 - Maintenance complete.

Effects of salting and drying on quality attributes of snoek (Thyrsites atun)

Omolara, Tanimowo Esther (2015-03)

Thesis (MSc Food Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Snoek (Thyrsites atun) is an important commercial fish species in South Africa, particularly in the Western Cape province. Snoek is mainly sold as fresh fish with excess fish being processed into dried salted fish. Although fishing is regulated by the various government agencies, the processing chain of snoek is largely unmonitored and unstandardized which has resulted in variable snoek quality becoming available to the consumer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality (proximate, biochemical composition and microbiological safety) of salted and dried snoek products both experimentally and through market sampling. This was achieved by investigating two lines of research: 1) Establishing the quality of locally sold salted and dried snoek from informal vendors and 2) Investigating the effects of different levels of salting (%) and drying (relative humidity and temperature) conditions on snoek meat quality. Product quality was assessed through the analysis of proximate composition, fatty acid composition, physico-chemical attributes, water activity, moisture loss, salt content and microbial safety and oxidative stability. Moisture, protein, lipid, and ash contents of snoek varied substantially between vendors, thereby providing products with variable quality to consumers. The water activity and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) of snoek from all vendors were higher than the reported threshold for good quality dried fish, indicating high levels of lipid oxidation. The level of TBARS and water activity varied between 9.58-19.83 mg MDA.Kg-1, and 0.75-0.85, respectively. This is undesirable in dried fish products as high water activity predisposes the products to spoilage. These findings indicate that the salted and dried snoek retailed in the Western Cape province require further drying to reduce the water activity in order to ultimately prolong the shelf life of the product. However, low histamine, high salt, low microbial counts and the absence of pathogens (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli) were observed which suggests that the products were wholesome at time of sale. An assessment of the effects of salting and drying on water activity, moisture loss, and salt content of Cape snoek was carried out. The treatments included 0% salt (unsalted) and salting at 20% salt concentration and salt saturation; the treated snoek portions were dried at 30°C/40% RH (relative humidity), 40°C/40% RH and 40°C/50% RH. During the salting process higher moisture loss resulted in high weight loss and low water activity in snoek portions salted to saturation compared to 20% (w/w). Once oven drying commenced the unsalted snoek portions had significantly higher moisture loss, higher weight loss but higher water activity than the salted groups. Lower salt content (12.8%), higher product yield and higher water activity were observed in snoek treated with 20% salt compared to those treated with saturated salt (23.6% salt). Low water activity and a salt content above 6% inhibits microbial growth and prevents spoilage of salted dried fish; therefore, the salt content of the salted snoek (12.8% for 20% salted).after the drying process is adequate for preventing microbial spoilage. A study examining the drying kinetics of snoek determined the moisture ratio, drying rate and effective moisture diffusivity of salted (20% w/w) and unsalted snoek dried at different drying environments (30°C/40% RH; 40°C/40% RH; 40°C/50% RH). A number of mathematical models (Lewis/Newton, Page, Henderson, Pabis and asymptotic logarithmic) were tested to predict the drying kinetics of snoek where the most effective predictive model was the Page model (r2 = 0.9999; mean square error = 6.6 x 10-6). The Page model showed that salting at 20% and drying at 40°C/40% RH was the best treatment with the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1.54 x 10-5) among the salt treatments, which is an indication of high drying rate. Therefore, the Page model can be used to optimise the drying process and design of dryers for snoek processing. The drying conditions, various treatments and their interactions (p ≤ 0.05) significantly influenced the drying rate and moisture content of snoek portions. Low effective moisture diffusivity and drying rate were observed in salted portions, emphasising the effect of salting on drying of snoek. This study has provided baseline information on the quality of locally sold dried snoek and established that salting at 20% and drying at 40°C/40% RH is adequate for the production of consistent quality salted dried snoek. Further research is needed to study the effects of salting and drying on the nutritional quality and shelf life of snoek.

AFRIKAANSE PSOMMING: Snoek (Thyrsites atun) is 'n belangrike visspesie wat in die kuswaters van die Wes-Kaap Provinsie van Suid-Afrika geoes word. Snoek word na vangs tipies vars verkoop, met oorskot vis wat verwerk en as 'n gesoute gedroogde produk verkoop word. Ten spyte van die amptelike regulering van die oes en verwerking van snoek, vind die verwerking van snoek onder toestande plaas wat nie beheer word nie en ook nie gestandaardiseerd is nie, wat gevolglik lei tot ʼn variasie in produkgehalte. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus om eerstens die gehalte van gesoute en gedroogde visprodukte deur ʼn marksteekproefneming te bepaal en om hierdie inligting dan te gebruik vir die ontwikkeling van protokolle vir die versouting en droging van snoek om uiteindelike produkkwaliteit te optimaliseer. In die tweede deel van die studie is die invloed van verskillende drogingsprotokolle, wat in terme van relatiewe humiditeit (RH) en temperatuur verskil, op produkgehalte ondersoek. Gehalte parameters wat in hierdie deel van die studie geëvalueer is, het die proksimale komponente (d.i. vog-, proteïen-, vet- en mineraal inhoud), vetsuursamestelling, fisies-chemiese eienskappe, mate van water aktiwiteit, vogverlies, sout-inhoud en mikrobiese veiligheid en stabiliteit, ingesluit. Die vog, proteïen-, vet- en mineraal parameters van gedroogde snoek soos bepaal in monsters versamel van verskillende verskaffers, het aansienlik gewissel. Die water aktiwiteit en tiobarbituriese suur stowwe (TBARS) in snoek monsters verkry vanaf verskaffers, was hoër as die aanbevole vlakke vir gedroogde vis. 'n Hoë mate van water aktiwiteit en TBARS is ongewens in gedroogde visprodukte, omrede 'n hoë mate van water aktiwiteit snoekvleis maklik laat bederf, terwyl 'n hoë TBARS waarde ʼn aanduiding is van ʼn groter waarskynlikheid dat lipied oksidasie kan voorkom. Die bevindinge van die eerste deel van die studie het aangedui dat gesoute gedroogde snoek as ʼn handelsproduk in die Kaapse Skiereiland omgewing, aan langer drogings- en versoutingstye onderwerp moet word om die vestiging van organismes wat die vleis kan bederf te voorkom, wat op sy beurt sal kan bydra daartoe om die rakleeftyd van snoek te verleng. Daar moet egter genoem word dat die monsters verkry vanaf die verskaffers gekenmerk was deur lae histamien vlakke, 'n hoë soutinhoud, lae mikrobiese tellings en die afwesigheid van patogene (Salmonella spp. en Escherichia coli), wat gesamentlik daarop dui dat die produkte met verkoop daarvan, geskik was vir gebruik. In die tweede deel van die studie is wisselvallige resultate verkry vir die verskillende drogings- en soutingsprotokolle. Snoek monsters wat tot versadigspunt versout is, het ‘n groter hoeveelheid vog en dus gewig verloor, asook ʼn lae graad van water aktiwiteit getoon, in vergelyking met monsters versout teen 20% (w/w). Met die aanvangs van die oond drogingsproses, het ongesoute snoek monsters aansienlik meer vog en gewig verloor, met dié monsters wat kenmerkend 'n hoër vlak van die water aktiwiteit as die onderskeie versoutingsbehandelings gehad het. Die waardes aangeteken vir water aktiwiteit (0.68 vs. 0.64) en sout konsentrasie (13% vs. 24%) vir die monsters wat onderskeidelik met 'n 20% sout (w/w) en tot versadigspunt versout is, voldoen aan die nodige vereistes om mikrobiese groei te inhibeer en dus te voorkom dat gesoute gedroogde snoek produkte maklik bederf. Die derde deel van die studie het die drogingskinetika (d.i. afdrogingstempo, vog verhouding, en effektiewe vog diffusiwiteit) van versoute (20%, w/w) en ongesoute snoek monsters, gedroog volgens drie drogingsprotokolle (d.i. 30°C en 40% RH; 40°C en 40% RH, 40°C en 50% RH), ondersoek. Die Page model het die drogingskinetika van die snoek monsters die beste voorspel, met 'n koëffisiënt van bepaling van 0.9999 en 'n gemiddelde vierkante fout van 6,6 x 10-6. Die Page model het aangedui dat versouting by 20% (w/w) en ʼn drogingsprotokol van 40°C en 40% RH, die hoogste effektiewe vog diffusiwiteit (1.54 x 10-5) tot gevolg gehad het. Die Page model kan dus potensieel gebruik word om die drogingsproses asook die ontwerp van die drogingsoonde gebruik in die verwerking van snoek monsters, te optimaliseer. Hierdie studie bied basislyn inligting oor die gehalte van plaaslik gedroogde snoek en ander gedroogde vis produkte, met die protokol van versouting teen 20% (w/w) en droging by 40°C en 40% RH, wat aanvaarbaar gevind is vir die lewering van snoek produkte van konstante gehalte. Toekomstige studies word benodig om die effek van versouting en droging op die voedingswaarde en raklewe van snoek vleis te ondersoek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96625
This item appears in the following collections: