Suspected dog bite associated HIV horizontal transmission in Swaziland
CITATION: Mlawanda, G. 2013. Suspected dog bite associated HIV horizontal transmission in Swaziland. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 5(1): 1-4, doi: 10.4102/phcfm.v5i1.440.
The original publication is available at http://www.phcfm.org
Background: Dog bites may lead to transmission of bacteria and viruses over and above tetanus and rabies. Theoretically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C may be transmitted after dog bites where transfer of blood from one victim to another occur in clinical practice HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are not considered when making treatment decisions, nor adequate patient history taken to consider all potential risks after dog bites in succession. Objective: To present case of suspected HIV transmission after dog bites in close succession involving two HIV sero-discordant victims. Management and outcome: HIV rapid test and/or HIV Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the victim(s) at presentation and a month later. Results: Two night patrol guards presented to casualty after dog bites in close succession by the same dog. They were managed according to the dog bite protocol. Thinking out of the box, the first victim was found to be HIV positive by rapid test whilst the second victim was negative based on both HIV rapid test and HIV RNA PCR. One month after the dog bites, a case of HIV sero-conversion was confirmed in the second victim despite post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Discussion: Although an isolated case, shouldn’t clinicians re-think the significance of HIV transmission after animal bites where there is repeated blood exposure in several people in succession? Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the potential of HIV, Hepatitis B and C transmission, when faced with dog bites in succession.