2016-12-31 The conditioning of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) meat : changes in texture and the mechanisms involved

North, Megan Kim (2014-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) muscle and the changes that take place in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles post-mortem (PM); thereby providing recommendations for the handling of the meat. Springbok muscle contained 64 - 78% type IIX fibres, suggesting that it is considerably more glycolytic than bovine muscle. In males the BF contained more type I and fewer type IIA fibres than the LTL and it appeared that female springbok contained a greater proportion of type IIX fibres than males. The cross-sectional areas (CSA’s) of the fibres were low but within the range reported for domestic species. There was an increase in the CSA with the glycolytic capacity of the fibres in males (I < IIA < IIAX < IIX) but no difference between fibre-types in females. Springbok muscle cooled rapidly and acidified slowly relative to recommended set points for domestic species, with this being most evident in the female LTL. Differences in cathepsin and calpain activity between the genders and muscles were evident, with the higher calpain activity in the BF and male springbok likely a reflection of the fibre-type composition of these samples. The cathepsin BL activity increased PM, possibly due to the degradation of the lysosomal membranes. Calpain and calpastatin activity declined PM, with correlations (r = -0.64; p < 0.01) between the pH decline rate and the change in calpastatin activity indicating that more rapid acidification results in a greater decrease in calpastatin activity. No further improvement in the Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of springbok LTL or BF took place from five to 21 days of ageing. The cathepsin activity increased during the ageing period, with the high activity in the absence of a decline in WBSF suggesting that the cathepsins did not contribute to tenderization. The calpain and calpastatin activity declined to negligible levels by five days PM, suggesting that they were activated in situ and were involved in tenderization. Higher WBSF values were found for the BF throughout the ageing period. Springbok LTL increased in sensorial tenderness and sustained juiciness and decreased in residue from three to eight days PM; however ageing to 28 days increased a number of undesirable aroma and flavour attributes and decreased beef-like aroma. This was most likely due to oxidative and proteolytic changes. The WBSF was low for all ageing periods, with no significant change being found. Gender did not have a large influence on the sensory quality of the meat. The results of this study indicate that springbok meat tenderizes rapidly PM, with ageing periods of five to eight days being recommended to avoid detrimental flavour changes. The chilling rate appears to have a greater effect on the meat than any differences in the fibre-type composition, with the temperature and pH declines PM indicating a risk of cold-shortening. However the WBSF values found question the necessity of specialized handling techniques being used.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die aard van springbokvleis en die veranderinge wat plaasvind na dood in die Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) en biceps femoris (BF) spiere te omskryf. Sodoende word voorstelle vir die korrekte hantering van springbok vleis voorsien. Die springbokspiere bevat 64 - 77% tipe IIX vesels wat aandui dat dit aansienlik meer glikolities van aard is in vergelyking met die van bees. In die manlike diere het die BF meer tipe I en minder tipe IIA vesels gehad as die LTL. Daarmee saam het die vroulike springbokke ‘n hoër hoeveelheid tipe IIX vesels gehad as die manlike. Die opeervlakte van die springbok vesels was klein, maar steeds binne die omvang van wat gemeld is vir gedomestiseerde diere. Tesame met ‘n toename in die glikolities kapasiteit was daar ‘n toename in die vesel oppervlakte van die manlike diere (I < IIA < IIAX < IIX), maar geen verskil is egter gevind vir die vroulike diere. Die springbok spiere het snel verkoel en redelik stadig versuur, relatief tot die van gedomestiseerde spesies. Dit was die mees voor die hand liggend in die vroulike LTL spier. Verskille in die katepsien en kalpaïen aktiwiteit tussen die geslagte was duidelik en die hoër kalpaïen aktiwiteit in die BF van die manlike diere is waarskynlik as gevolg van die samestelling van die veseltipes. Die katepsien BL aktiwiteit het toegeneem na-dood wat moontlik te wyte is aan die afbraak van die lisosomale membrane. Kalpaïen en kalpastatien aktiwiteit het verlaag na-dood en korrelasies (r = -0.64; p < 0.01) tussen die tempo van die pH daling en die verandering in die kalpastatien aktiwiteit het aangedui dat ‘n snel versuring lui tot ‘n groter afname in kalpastatien aktiwiteit. Daar was geen verbetering in die instrumentele sagtheid van die springbok LTL of BF vanaf vyf dae veroudering tot en met 21 dae. Die katepsien aktiwiteit het toegeneem tydens die verouderings tydperk. As gevolg van die hoë aktiwiteit tesame met die afwesigheid van ‘n afname in instrumentele sagtheid wil dit voorkom of die katepsiene geen bydrae gelewer het tot versagting. Beide die kalpaïen en kalpastatien aktiwiteit het weglaatbaar afgeneem teen vyf dae van veroudering wat aandui dat hierdie ensieme moontlik geaktiveer is in-situ en daarom betrokke was by versagting. Die BF spier het hoër instrumentele taaiheid waardes getoon reg deur die verouderings tydperk. Die springbok LTL het ‘n toename in sensoriese sagtheid en verlangde sappigheid tesame met ‘n afname in residu getoon vanaf drie tot ag dae veroudering. Die veroudering tot en met 28 dae het egter verskeie ongewensde aroma en geur eienskappe na vore gebring. Die paneel het ook ‘n afname in die bees aroma opgetel. Die voorkoms van hierdie ongewensde sensoriese eienskappe is heel waarskynlik as gevolg van oksidatiewe en proteolitiese veranderinge tydens veroudering. Die instrumentele sagtheid was redelik laag reg oor die verouderingstydperk en geen beduidende verskille is gevind. Geslag het geen verskil gehad op die sensoriese kwaliteit van die vleis nie. In geheel toon die resultate van hierdie studie dat springbokvleis snel verouder. Die aanbevole verouderingstydperk is tussen vyf en agt dae om sodoende nadelige aroma en geur veranderinge te vermy. Dit wil blyk of die verkoelingstempo ‘n groter invloed op die vleis het as enige verskil in die samestelling van die vesel tipes. Die temperatuur en pH dalings na-dood dui wel op die risiko van kouekrimping maar die resultate rondom die instrumentele sagtheid bevraagteken wel die noodsaaklikheid van gespesialiseerde hanteringstegnieke.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96182
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