Evaluation of the performance characteristics of a hybrid (dry/wet) induced draft dephlegmator

Anderson, Neil Raymond (2014-12)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A novel induced draft hybrid (dry/wet) dephlegmator (HDWD) is introduced which can enhance the performance of dry air-cooled condenser systems and a model is developed to simulate its performance. The HDWD consists of two stages of cooling with the steam flow in series and the air flow in parallel through both stages. The first stage consists of downwardly inclined finned tube bundles, similar to conventional air-cooled condenser bundles, and the second stage comprises horizontal bare tube bundles of which the outer surface can selectively be operated dry or wet by spraying it with deluge water. A comparison of the HDWD with other existing and new concepts reveals the significant advantages that this technology has over other technologies. This thesis is a continuation of the work done by Heyns (2008), who introduced a forced draft HDWD and investigated its performance, and Owen (2013), who conducted a parametric investigation on the induced draft HDWD to improve the basic design proposed by Heyns (2008). In his thermo-flow model, Heyns (2008) conducted a thermal analysis assuming equal air flow through both stages and a constant vapor temperature inside the bundles, while Owen (2013) solved the thermal, steam-side pressure drop and draft equations. Both their models make use of empirical correlations by Gaddis & Gnielinski (1985), Zukauskas (1987), Mizushina et al. (1967) and Niitsu et al. (1967) for the performance characteristics. The current model solves the thermal, steam-side pressure drop and draft equations of the HDWD with better accuracy in the steam-side pressure drop calculation. The airside heat and mass transfer and loss coefficient correlations found in literature were found to deviate significantly from each other resulting in uncertainty regarding their suitability. Based on the recommendations by Owen (2013), a bare tube test bundle with 19 mm outer diameter tubes arranged with a triangular pitch of 38 mm is therefore designed, manufactured and tested to investigate the performance characteristics of the bundle experimentally under dry and wet operating conditions to evaluate the correlations from literature. The experimental data confirmed the applicability of the correlations of Gaddis & Gnielinski (1985) and Zukauskas (1987) to predict the dry HDWD performance, since they deviated by 7% and 5% respectively from the experimental data in die applicable range. The heat transfer during wet operation is slightly over estimated within 5% with the correlations of Mizushina et al. (1967) in the range of application. The air-side pressure drop during wet operation is underestimated by 29 to 39% by Niitsu et al. (1967) and the correlation obtained from the experimental results is therefore used in the current model. Using the current HDWD model indicates significant performance enhancement using tubes with a smaller diameter in the delugeable bundle compared to the larger tubes of Heyns (2008) and agrees very well with the model of Owen (2013).

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Hibriede geïnduseerde trek deflegmator is voorgestel wat die werksverrigting van huidige lugverkoelde kondenserstelsels kan verbeter en ‘n model is ontwikkel wat die werksverrigting simuleer. Die deflegmator bestaan uit twee stadiums van verkoeling met die stoomvloei in serie en die lugvloei in parallel deur beide stadia. Die eerste stadium bestaan uit skuins, afwaartse finbuisbundels, soortgelyk aan konvensionele lugverkoelde kondenser-finbuisbundels, en die tweede stadium bestaan uit horisontale kaalbuisbundels waarvan die buite-oppervlak selektief droog of nat bedryf kan word deur dit met verkoelingswater te benat. ‘n Vergelyking tussen die deflegmator en ander huidige en nuwe konsepte toon merkbare voordele wat die tegnologie bo die ander tegnologië het. Die tesis is ‘n voortsetting van die werk van Heyns (2008), wie ‘n hibriede geforseerde trek deflegmator voorgestel en die werksverrigting daarvan ondersoek het, en Owen (2013) wat ‘n parametriese studie op die hibriede geïnduseerde trek deflegmator gedoen het om die basiese ontwerp voorgestel deur Heyns (2008) te verbeter. In sy termovloei-model, het Heyns (2008) die termiese analise ondersoek met die aanname van gelyke hoeveelhede lugvloei deur beide stadia met ‘n konstante damp-temperatuur binne die bundels, terwyl Owen (2013) die termiese, stoomkant-drukval and trekvergelykings opgelos het. Beide hul modelle maak van die empiriese korrelasies van Gaddis & Gnielinski (1985), Zukauskas (1987), Mizushina et al. (1967) en Niitsu et al. (1967) gebruik vir die werkverrigtingskarakteristieke. Die huidige model los die termiese, die stoomkant-drukval asook die trekvergelykings van die deflegmator op met verbeterde akkuraatheid van die stoomkant-drukval berekeninge. Die lugkant warmte- en massaoordrag en verlieskoëffisiënt korrelasies wyk baie van mekaar af wat lei tot onsekerhede rakende hul toepasbaarheid. Gebaseer op die voorstelle van Owen (2013) is ‘n kaalbuisbundel met 19 mm buite-diameter buise met ‘n driehoekige steek van 38 mm dus ontwerp, vervaardig en getoets om die werksverrigtingskarakteristieke van die bundel eskperimenteel te ondersoek onder droë en nat toestande om die korrelasies van die literatuur te evalueer. Die eksperimentele data bevestig die toepaslikheid van die korrelasies van Gaddis & Gnielinski (1985) en Zukauskas (1987) om die droë werksverrigting van die deflegmator te voorspel, aangesien hul met 7% en 5% onderskeidelik afwyk van die eksperimentele data in die toepaslike bestek. Die warmteoordrag tydens natwerking is ietwat oorskat binne 5% met die korrelasies van Mizushina et al. (1967) in die bestek van toepassing. Die lugkant-drukval tydens natwerking is onderskat met 29 tot 39% deur Niitsu et al. (1967) en die korrelasie verkry vanaf die eksperimentele resultate is dus gebruik in die huidige model. Deur gebruik te maak van die huidige model van die deflegmator dui merkbare werksverrigting verbetering aan deur van buise met ‘n kleiner diameter in die benatbare bundel te gebruik in vergelyking met die groter buise van Heyns (2008) en stem baie goed ooreen met die model van Owen (2013).

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