A peridynamic model for sleeved hydraulic fracture

Van Der Merwe, Carel Wagener (2014-12)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Current numerical methods in the eld of hydraulic fracturing are based mainly on continuum methods, such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM). These methods are governed by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) criteria, which su er from the inherent aw of a non-physical stress representation at the fracture tip. In response to this, a non-local method is proposed, namely the peridynamic theory, to model sleeved hydraulic fracture. A 2D implicit quasi-static ordinary state based peridynamic formulation is implemented on various benchmark problems, to verify the ability to capture constitutive behaviour in a linear elastic solid, as well as, the quanti cation of adverse e ects on the accuracy of the displacement solution, due to the nature of the non-local theory. Benchmark tests consist of a plate in tension, where convergence to the classical displacement solution, non-uniform re nement and varying cell sizes are tested, as well as, a thick walled cylinder with internal pressure, where three di erent loading techniques are tested. The most accurate loading technique is applied to the sleeved fracture model, in order to simulate fracture initiation and propagation. This model is then veri ed and validated by using the Rummel & Winter hydraulic fracturing model and experimental results, respectively. Displacement error minimisation methods are implemented and as a result, the displacement solutions for a plate in tension converges to the analytical solution, while the thick walled cylinder solutions su er from inaccuracies due to an applied load on an irregularly discretized region. The fracture initiation test captures the fracture tip behaviour of the Rummel & Winter model and the fracture propagation test show good correlation with experimental results. This research shows that the peridynamic approach to sleeved hydraulic fracture can yield a realistic representation of fracture initiation and propagation, however, further research is needed in the area of a pressure load application on a solid using the peridynamic approach.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Huidige numeriese metodes in die veld van hidrouliese breking is hoofsaaklik gebaseer op kontinuum metodes, soos die Eindige Element Metode (EEM) en die Rand Element Metode (REM). Hierdie metodes word beheer deur Linie^ere Elastiese Breukmeganika (LEB) kriteria, wat ly aan die inherente gebrek van 'n nie- siese voorstelling van die spanning by die fraktuur punt. Om hierdie probleme aan te spreek, word 'n nie-lokale metode voorgestel, naamlik die peridinamiese teorie, om gehulsde hidrouliese breking te modelleer. 'n 2D implisiete kwasi-statiese ordin^ere toestand gebaseerde peridinamika formulering word ge mplimenteer op verskeie norm probleme, om te veri eer of dit oor die vermo e beskik om die konstitutiewe gedrag van 'n linie^ere elastiese soliede materiaal te modeleer, asook die kwanti sering van nadelige e ekte op die verplasings oplossing as gevolg van die natuur van die nie-lokale teorie. Normtoetse bestaan uit 'n plaat in trek spanning, waar konvergensie na die klassieke verplasings oplossing, nie-uniforme verfyning en vari^eerende sel groottes getoets word, asook 'n dikwandige silinder onder interne druk, waar drie verskillende belasting aanwendingstegnieke getoets word. Die mees akkurate belasting aanwendingstegniek word dan gebruik in die gehulsde hidrouliese breking model, om fraktuur aanvangs en uitbreiding na te boots. Die model word dan geveri- eer deur die Rummel & Winter hidrouliese breking model en eksperimentele resultate, onderskeidelik. Fout minimering metodes word toegepas en as 'n resultaat, konvergeer die verplasing oplossing vir die plaat na die analitiese oplossing, terwyl die oplossing van die dikwandige silinder onakuraathede toon as gevolg van 'n toegepaste belasting op 'n onre elmatig gediskretiseerde gebied. Die modellering van die fraktuur inisi ering by die fraktuur punt, stem goed ooreen met die Rummel en Winter voorspelling en die fraktuur uitbreiding stem goed ooreen met eksperimentele resultate. Hierdie navorsing toon dat die peridinamiese benadering tot gehulsde hidrouliese breking wel die fraktuur inisi ering en uitbreiding realisties kan modelleer, maar nog navorsing word wel benodig in die area waar 'n druk belasting op 'n peridinamiese soliede model toegepas word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95993
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