An evaluation of the green scheme programme : a case of the Kalimbeza rice project

Subasubani, Joseph Kamwi (2014-12)

Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Approximately three out of four people in developing countries such as Namibia live in rural areas. The majority of these rural poor’s livelihoods depend directly or indirectly on agriculture. Therefore, there is an urgent need to design agricultural programmes that focus on rural communities in order to reduce incidences of poverty. Although the Namibian Government invests in the agricultural sector, hunger for both humans and animals were evident in 2012. The starvation situation was worsened by high food prices, compounded with a high unemployment rate that meant the majority of the population could not afford to pay for food. Evidence shows that Namibia is a net food importer; meaning that less local food production is taking place. Therefore, the government is trying to reverse the situation of relying on imported food, by enhancing local production, and one of the ways of achieving this goal is through the Green Scheme Programme. The research problem of this study is defined as follows: “An evaluation of the Green Scheme Programme: A case of the Kalimbeza Rice Project”. The study commences by exploring the literature on the role of the state in improving the socioeconomic status of its citizens. Many developing countries have weak private sectors; therefore, governments remain with the responsibility to spearhead development. With unrestrained unemployment, poverty and inequality, state-led development is the solution in uplifting the socio-economic status of people, especially the rural poor. Since the rural poor depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is necessary for Government to devise Sustainable Livelihood programmes in the sector, which many people rely upon for survival. Reducing incidences of rural poverty calls for Sustainable Livelihood programmes that the Namibian Government came up with, such as the approximately N$ 1.2 billion per annum Green Scheme Programme. This is an irrigation programme that aims at increasing agricultural production, contribute to the Gross Domestic Product, promote food security, create jobs and promote skills development. The study sought to establish whether the Green Scheme Programme is effective in achieving its intended, and at times, unintended goals. The Kalimbeza Rice Project, under the Green Scheme Programme was chosen as a case study. Evidence from the study shows that employment creation took place, because many locals have secured temporary jobs at the farm, and the salaries earned have had a positive impacts on their lives. Food security has not been fully achieved, as only about 25 per cent of the total farm area is cultivated yearly. Finally, the study suggests that there is an urgent need for the Green Scheme Programme and all its projects to speed operations in order to achieve the country’s Vision 2030.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ongeveer drie uit elke vier mense in ʼn ontwikkelende land soos Namibië is woonagtig in landelike gebiede. Die meerderheid van landelike armes se inkomste is direk of indirek afhanklik van lanbou aktiwiteite. Dus, is daar ʼn dringende behoefte aan lanbou ontwikkelingsprogramme wat spesifiek fokus op landelike gemeenskappe om sodoende die voorkoms van armoede te verminder. Alhoewel die Namibiese regering belê in die lanbousektor, was lae vlakke van voedselsekuriteit vir beide mens en dier nogsteeds sigbaar in 2012. Die kroniese hongerte situasie in Namibië word grotendeels verger deur hoë voedselpryse. ʼn Hoë werkloosheidsyfer dra ook daartoe by dat die meerderheid armes nie voedsel kan bekostig nie. Navorsing toon dat Namibië ʼn netto invoerder is van kos. Dit beteken dat Namibië minder plaaslik voedsel produseer. Gevolglik, probeer die Namibiese regering die afhanklikheid op ingevoerde voedsel verminder deur die verbetering van plaaslike produksie vermoëns. Een van die maniere wat hulle gebruik om dit te bewerkstellig is deur die regering se Green Scheme Program. Die navorsingsprobleem van dié studie word as volg gedefinieer: ʼn Evaluering van die Green Scheme Program: Die Kalimbeza Rice Project as gevallestudie. Die vertrekpunt van dié studie begin deur die verkenning van literatuur wat spesifiek handel oor die rol van die staat in die verbetering van die sosio-ekonomiese status van sy burgers. Baie ontwikkelende lande het swak of klein privaat sektore, dus bly regerings verantwoordelik om ontwikkeling moontlik te maak. Ongebreidelde werkloosheid, armoede en ongelykheid noodsaak staat geleide ontwikkeling as die enigste oplossing vir die opheffing van die sosio-ekonomiese status van mense, veral landelike armes. Die feit dat landelike armes grotendeels afhanklik is van landbou vir inkomstes en oorlewing, is dit nodig vir die regering om ʼn Volhoubare Lewensbestaan Program te ontwikkel in die sektor, waarop baie mense aangewese is vir oorlewing. Die vermindering van voorvalle van landelike armoede kan toegeskryf word aan die Volhoubare Lewensbestaan Program wat deur die Namibiese regering geïmplementeer word, soos die ongeveer N$ 1.2 biljoen per jaar Green Scheme Program. Dit is ʼn besproeiingstelsel program wat verhoogde lanbouproduksie ten doel het, as ook bydra tot die Bruto Binnelandse Produk, bevordering van voedselsekuriteit, werkskepping en die bevordering van vaardigheidsontwikkeling. Dié studie sal poog om vas te stel of die Green Scheme Program effektief is in die bereiking van beoogde doelwitte, en by tye, die bereiking van onvoorsiene doelwitte. Die Kalimbeza Rice Project, as deel van die Green Scheme Program, sal dien as n gevallestudie. Getuienis van die studie toon dat werkskepping wel plaasgevind het, omdat baie plaaslike inwoners tydelik in diens geneem is op die plaas, en die salarisse ontvang het alreeds ʼn positiewe effek gehad op hul lewens. Voedsel sekuriteit is nog nie ten volle verwesenlik nie, omdat slegs 25% van die totale plaas oppervlakte onder verbouing is. Gevolglik, dui die studie daarop dat daar ʼn onmiddelike behoefte bestaan vir die Green Scheme Program en al sy onderskeie projekte om sodoende pogings te versnel in die bereiking van die land se Visie 2030.

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