A feasible design concept for the deep water breakwater of the proposed new Durban Dig-Out Port

Wust, Isak (2014-12)

Thesis (MEng)–Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Port of Durban is forecasted to reach its capacity in terms of container handling soon, which necessitates the investigation of an alternative port in the vicinity. The old Durban Airport site has been identified as a potential location to develop a new deep water container harbour. This is driven by a demand for deep water berth capacity as a result of shipping liners preferring the benefits of scale in their operations, leading to the use of larger ships with deeper drafts. To protect the new port from wave energy penetrating inside the basin as well as from sedimentation from the adjacent beaches, the design and construction of breakwaters are required. The proposed main breakwater for this dig-out port is expected to extend 1 200m into the sea, up to depths of 30m at the seaward roundhead. The deeper parts of the breakwater face wave onslaught in a different manner than a conventional breakwater in shallower waters. At these larger depths, the breakwater has to dissipate the energy of non-breaking waves. In this thesis, the wave climate nearshore, adjacent to the proposed breakwater is studied and extreme wave events are simulated with a SWAN numerical model. The results for a range of wave conditions, corresponding to selected events up to a return period of one in 100 years, are presented. A study of deep water breakwaters was undertaken to investigate other examples of similar structures. This indicated a clear distinction between vertical wall type breakwaters and the more traditional rubble-mound type breakwaters. For this thesis, a rubble-mound breakwater was chosen as the breakwater type for testing under conditions of the Durban Dig-Out Port (DDOP). Focussing on a deep water trunk section of the proposed main breakwater, a concept cross-section was designed using deterministic design methods. The formulae incorporated in this method did however not take into account the packing density of the armour layer and only assumed the recommended values. The hypothesis is thus put forward that the breakwater will still be hydraulically stable for packing densities below the recommended values. This would decrease material consumption and save on cost over the entire breakwater. A physical model was designed to experiment with different armour layer configurations of single- and double layer Cubipod arrangements. The unit was chosen for its massive shape and structural integrity even during impact. A physical model study was performed at the facilities of the CSIR in Stellenbosch. It entailed setting up a fixed-bed two-dimensional physical model in a glass wave flume. Measuring wave heights, wave reflection, overtopping, wave transmission and armour damage, the hydraulic stability and operational performance were analysed for several tests. Based on the results of the first few test series, alterations were made to the breakwater geometry and armouring. The results confirmed the hypothesis that lower packing densities were still hydraulically stable under 1 in 100 year return period wave conditions without inhibiting operational performance. A final cross-section is presented as concept design for the deep section of the proposed DDOP main breakwater.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Volgens vooruitsigte gaan Durban hawe binnekort sy kapasiteit bereik wat die hantering van skeepshouers betref. Hierdie verwikkeling noodsaak die ondersoek na ‘n alternatiewe hawe in die nabye omgewing. Die voormalige Durban lughawe is intussen geïdentifiseer as ‘n potensiële perseel waar ‘n diep water houervrag hawe ontwikkel kan word. Dit word gedryf deur die aanvraag na diep water kaai kapasiteit as gevolg van skip operateurs wat skaalvoordele verkies, sodat groter skepe met diep rompe meer populêr word. Die ontwerp en konstruksie van breekwaters word dus benodig, om te verhoed dat beide golwe, sowel as sediment van aangrensende strande, die hawe binnedring. Die voorgestelde hoof breekwater vir hierdie hawe sal na verwagting tot 1200m in die see in strek, waar dit tot 30m diep is naby die seewaartse hoof van dié breekwater. Die dieper gedeeltes van só ‘n breekwater sal blootgestel word aan ‘n ander soort golf aanslag as ‘n soortgelyke konvensionele breekwater in vlakker water. In hierdie waterdiepte is die breekwater verantwoordelik vir die energie verbreking van ongebreekte golwe. In hierdie tesis word die golfklimaat langs die kus, naby aan die voorgestelde breekwater bestudeer. Die uiterste golf gebeurtenisse word gesimuleer met ‘n SWAN numeriese model. Die resultate van ‘n reeks golf kondisies, ooreenstemmend met bepaalde gebeurtenissemet herhaal periodes van tot 100 jaar, word aangebied. ‘n Studie van diep water breekwaters is onderneem om voorbeelde van soortgelyke strukture te ondersoek. Die studie toon ‘n definitiewe onderskeid tussen vertikale muur breekwaters en die meer tradisionele “rubble-mound” breekwater tipes. Vir hierdie tesis is die “rubble-mound” breekwater tipe gekies vir toetsing, onderhewig aan die kondisies van die “Durban Dig-Out Port” (DDOP). ‘n Konsep deursnit is ontwerp vir ‘n diep water romp gedeelte van die voorgestelde hoof breekwater, deur van deterministiese metodes gebruik te maak. Die formules soos vervat in hierdie proses maak egter nie voorsiening vir die pakdigtheid van die bewapeningslaag nie, maar aanvaar slegs die voorgestelde waardes. Die hipotese word dus aangevoer dat die breekwater steeds hidrolies stabiel sal wees vir pakdigthede wat laer as die voorgestelde waardes is. Dit sal die verbruik van materiale verlaag en lei tot koste besparings vir die breekwater. ‘n Fisiese model is ontwerp om te eksperimenteer met verskillende opstellings van die bewapeningslaag. Dit sluit enkel- en dubbel laag bewapening met Cubipod eenhede in. Hierdie eenheid is gekies vir sy massiewe vorm en strukturele integriteit, selfs tydens impak. ‘n Fisiese model studie is uitgevoer by die fasiliteite van die WNNR in Stellenbosch. Dit het die opstel van ‘n vaste-bodem, twee-dimensionele fisiese model in ‘n glas golftenk (“wave flume”) behels. Hidroliese stabiliteit en operasionele werksverrigting is geanaliseer deur golf hoogtes, -weerkaatsing, -oorslag, -deurlating, en skade aan die bewapening te meet vir verskeie toetse. Gebasseer op die resultate van die eerste paar toetsreekse, is veranderinge gemaak aan die breekwater se geometrie en bewapening. Die resultate het die hipotese bevestig dat laer pakdigthede steeds hidrolies stabiel is tydens golf kondisies met ‘n 1 in 100 jaar herhaal periode, sonder om die werksverrigting van die breekwater te belemmer. ‘n Finale deursnit word voorgestel as ‘n konsepontwerp vir die diep water deursnit van die DDOP se hoof breekwater.

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