Evaluation of adhesion properties in bitumen-aggregate systems for winter surfacing seals using the bitumen bond strength test

Twagirimana, Emmanuel (2014-12)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Flexible pavement designers have a choice of two wearing course: either asphalt concrete or surfacing seals. The latter have been widely used by several countries as their preferred wearing course over other methods, especially countries with a limited number of average inhabitants per square kilometre. Moreover, the surfacing seals were identified as an efficient cost effective road preventive maintenance technique. Surfacing seals in New Zealand, South Africa and Australia cover about 65%, 80% and 90% of their surfaced road networks respectively. The preference of surfacing seals is due to their competitive initial cost and ease of construction. In South Africa, the life expectancy of surfacing seals varies between 8 and 12 years with an average of 10 years. This has not been the case in a number of surfacing seals constructed in winter, especially when the night recorded temperature is below 10oC. The dominant failure mechanism is ravelling (chip loss) soon after construction due to traffic loading. This chip loss is linked to the poor adhesion bond development rate in the bitumen-aggregate system during winter adverse conditions. In order to address the issue of premature chip loss the need for the development of a robust adhesion test method was identified. For that purpose, recently, researchers in the bitumen industry developed the Bitumen Bond Strength test method. This method was used in this study. This study intends to contribute to the understanding of binder-aggregate adhesion bond development for winter surfacing seals using the BBS test. Binder type, precoat type and conditioning, aggregate type and curing time are amongst the factors influencing winter seals adhesion bond performance. An experimental matrix involving three types of binder, two types of aggregate, four different precoating fluids, two precoat conditionings and two binder-curing times were then developed and investigated. Winter weather parameters affecting adhesion properties were also taken into consideration during the course of the investigation. Throughout the test, the procedure described in AASHTO TP 91-11 was followed. However, in order to enhance the control of the binder application temperature, a new method for hot applied binder sample preparation was developed as part of this study. The findings show that there is a significant difference between adhesion properties of the hot applied binders (70/100 and S-E1) and the emulsion (SC-E1). In most of the cases, the hot applied binders performed better than the emulsion. The failure mode observed was found to be linked to the condition of the precoating. The influence of the precoat type and conditioning, and effect of binder curing time were significantly highlighted. The use of a dry precoat benefited the adhesion bond strength up to around 50% relatively to the corresponding non-precoated combination. However, a decrement in the bond strength due to precoating of up to 28.7% was also observed. A statistical analysis using ANOVA did not illustrate any statistical significant effect of the aggregate type. The interaction effects analysis using ANOVA revealed the aggregate type interacting with precoat type to be the most influential interaction at level two. The precoat conditioning implication to the adhesion development rate, which influences the time for opening to traffic after construction, was illustrated. Insightful aspects on the compatibility between the binder type and precoat type and conditioning during the aggregate precoating practices and on the time for opening to traffic are highlighted. Finally, the repeatability analysis proved the BBS test to be a repeatable testing method with caution. Recommendations for further studies that could support the conclusions drawn in this study were provided.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Buigbare plaveiselontwerpers het 'n keuse van twee deklae: óf Asfalt of oppervlak seëls. Laasgenoemde word algemeen gebruik deur verskeie lande as hul voorkeur deklaag, veral die lande met beperkte aantal gemiddelde inwoners per vierkante kilometer. Verder, is die seëls geïdentifiseer as 'n doeltreffende koste-effektiewe deklaag tegniek. Oppervlakseëls in Nieu-Seeland, Suid-Afrika en Australië dek ongeveer 65%, 80% en 90% van hul padnetwerke onderskeidelik. Die seëls se voorkeur is te danke aan hul mededingende aanvanklike koste en eenvoudige vorm van die konstruksie. In Suid-Afrika wissel die seël se lewensverwagting tussen 8 en 12 jaar met 'n gemiddeld van 10 jaar. Dit is egter nie die geval van 'n aantal seëls wat in die winter gebou word nie, veral wanneer die aangetekende nagtemperatuur onder 10o C daal nie. Die dominante swigtingsmeganisme is stroping (klipverlies) kort na konstruksie. Hierdie klipverlies is gekoppel aan die power kleef-ontwikkeling van bitumen gedurende die winter. Ten einde die probleem van voortydige klipverlies aan te spreek het die behoefte vir die ontwikkeling van 'n robuuste toetsmetode ontstaan. Om hierdie rede het navorsers onlangs in die bitumenbedryf die “BBS toetsmetode” ontwikkel en is dié toetsmetode in hierdie studie gebruik. Hierdie studie beoog om by te dra tot die begrip van bindmiddel-klip kleefontwikkeling vir die winter seëls dmv die BBS toets. Die faktore, insluitend maar nie beperk tot bindmiddeltipe, voorafdekking (“PRECOAT”) -tipe en kondisionering, aggregaattipe en kuurtyd beïnvloed winter seëls se kleefeienskappe. 'n Eksperimentele matriks met drie tipes bindmiddels, twee tipes aggregate, vier verskillende voorafdekking-vloeistowwe, twee voorafdekking kondisionering en twee bindmiddel kuurtye is toe ontwikkel en ondersoek. Winter weer parameters wat kleefeienskappe beïnvloed is ook in ag geneem tydens die verloop van die ondersoek. Regdeur die studie is die prosedure AASHTO TP 91-11 gevolg, maar ten einde die beheer van die bindmiddel spuittemperatuur te verbeter, is ‘n nuwe metode vir warmspuit-bindmonsters voorbereiding ontwikkel as deel van hierdie studie. Die bevindinge toon dat daar 'n beduidende verskil tussen die kleefeienskappe van die warm aangewende bindmiddels (70/100 en S-E1) en die emulsie (SC-E1) is. In die meeste van die gevalle het die warmspuit-bindmiddels beter as emulsie gevaar. Daar is gevind dat die swigtingsmeganisme verbind word met die toestand van die voorafdekking. Die invloed van voorafdekkingtipe, kondisionering, en die effek van bindmiddelkuurtyd is duidelik uitgelig. Die gebruik van droë voorafdekking het die kleefkrag tot sowat 50% verhoog relatief tot die ooreenstemmende onbedekte klipkombinasie. Daar is egter ook ‘n verlaging van die kleefkrag weens voorafdekking gevind van tot so hoog soos 28,7 persent. Die statistiese ontleding met behulp van ANOVA het geen statisties beduidende effek van die verksillende aggregaattipe te vore gebring nie. Die interaksie-effek analise, met behulp van ANOVA, het wel die interaksie met voorafdekkingtipe met aggregaat die mees invloedryke bevestig. Die voorafdekking kondisioneering het ver rykende kleefkrag implikasies bloot gelê, wat die tyd vir die opening van die verkeer na konstruksie beïnvloed. Insigwekkende aspekte oor die versoenbaarheid tussen die bindmiddeltipe, voorafdekkingtipe, kondisionering, voorafdekkingpraktyk en tyd tot opening vir verkeer word uitgelig. Ten slotte, die herhaalbaarheidsanalise het die BBS toets as 'n herhaalbare toetsmetode met omsigtigheid bewys. Daar is aanbevelings tot verdere studies, wat uit die gevolgtrekking gekom het, gemaak.

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