Influence of surface seal variables on bitumen bond strength properties

Lombard, Le Riche (2014-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Surface seals are widely used in South Africa. There are a number of reasons which include affordability, versatility and durability. There are, however, in some cases problems with stone loss that can lead to a shortened lifespan of the pavement. The loss of aggregate chippings in surface seals poses a major problem in the seal pavement industry. This study aims to identify the influencing factors that lead to these adhesive failures as well as to find optimum combinations of binders and aggregates at various conditions. Various binders commonly used in South African surface seal construction will be tested using the Bitumen Bond Strength (BBS) test method. The binders used in the study include 80/100 penetration grade bitumen, elastomer modified bitumen, bitumen rubber, elastomer modified emulsion and cationic rapid setting emulsion. Aggregates used in the study include dolerite, granite and quartzite. The test samples were cured and tested at two temperatures, 15 °C and 35 °C. The samples were also cured for 2, 6 and 24 hours respectively. The study tackles a wide range of variables in order to obtain a good understanding of adhesion properties of surface seals used in South Africa. Tests were repeated at least once to ensure repeatability and in some cases up to four repeats were performed. The loading rate at which the tests were performed had a significant influence on the BBS results. This rate varied which complicated the process of comparing the results. It was therefore decided to unify the loading rates. The BBS results exposed the difference between hot applied binders and emulsions. The former having significant stronger adhesion properties. It was also confirmed by the results that temperature plays a key role in the BBS results due to the visco-elastic properties of bitumen. These influences will be discussed along with others such as aggregate types and curing times. The type of failure is also discussed. Failure can either be adhesive or cohesive, the former being a failure between the aggregate and the binder while the later refers to a failure in the binder itself. The results of other students will also be discussed and compared to the results of this study. These include results of predecessors that tested emulsions as well as results from tests done on fractured aggregate surfaces and precoated aggregates. This study showed very similar results as these from other students, except for tests done with emulsions. It was discovered that the method of curing of the emulsions must be adapted to ensure proper curing of the emulsions. It was found that aggregates did not influence the BBS properties to the same extent as temperature and binder application type. The BBS results of hot applied binders also did not significantly increase as the curing time increased, but the results of emulsions showed some increase. However, the emulsions needed more time to cure properly.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Oppervlak seëls word algemeen gebruik in Suid-Afrika. Daar is verskeie redes hiervoor waaronder bekostigbaarheid,veelsydigheid en duursaamheid. Daar is egter in sommige gevalle probleme met klipverlies wat kan lei tot n verkorte leeftyd. Hierdie klipverlies ontstaan as gevolg van verskeie redes of kombinasies daarvan. Die studie beoog om hierdie faktore wat die adhesie eienskappe beïnvloed te identifiseer sowel as om optimum kobinasies van bindmiddels en klipsoorte te bewerkstellig by verkeie kondisies. ‘n Verskeidenheid van bindmiddels wat algemeen in Suid-Afrika gebruik word, word in die studie getoets met die Bitumen Bond Sterkte (BBS) toets metode. Die bindmiddels wat in die studie gebruik word sluit 80/100 penetrasie graad bitumen, elastomeer gemodifiseerde bitumen, bitumen rubber, elastomeer gemodifiseerde emulsie en kationiese snel settende emulsie. Die klipsoorte wat vir die studie gebruikword is doleriet, graniet en kwartsiet. Hierdie gesteentes word algemeen in die praktyk gebruik. Die toets monsters word ook by twee temperature gekuur en getoets. Hierdie temperature is 15 °C en 35 °C. Die toets monsters word ook onderskeidelik vir 2, 6 en 24 uur gekuur. Die studie ondersoek 'n wye verskeidenheid van veranderlikes om sodoende 'n goeie begrip van adhesie eienskappe van die oppervlak seëls wat in Suid-Afrika gebruik word te verkry. Elke toets was ten minste een maal herhaal om herhaalbaarheid te verseker. Sommige toetse was tot 4 keer herhaal. Die belasting tempo van die toetse het ‘n beduidende uitwerking op die BBS resultate as gevolg van die visko-elastiese eienskappe van bitumen. Hierdie tempo het gewissel en dit moeilik gemaak om die resultate te vergelyk. Daarom was daar besluit om die tempo van die toetse te verander na ‘n gelykvormige tempo. Daar was ‘n duidelike verskil in BBS resultate van die warm toegepaste bindmiddels en die emulsies. Die warm bindmiddels het baie hoër BBS resultate gelwer. Dit was ook bevestig in die resultate dat temperatuur ‘n beduidende rol speel in die BBS. Hierdie invloede sal bespreek word tesame met ander, soos klipsoorte en kuring tye. Die tipe versaking word ook bespreek. Versaking kan plaasvind as gevolg van adhesie of cohesie, waar adhesie versaking 'n versaking is tussen die klip en die bindmiddel terwyl cohesie versaking verwys na 'n versaking in die bindmiddel self. Die uitslae van die ander studente sal ook bespreek word en vergelyking word met die resultate van hierdie studie. Dit sluit die resultate van voorgangers in wat emulsies getoets het sowel as die resultate van toetse wat gedoen is op gebreekte klipoppervlaktes en bitumen behandelde klippe. Hierdie studie het baie soortgelyke resultate getoon as dié van ander studente, behalwe vir die toetse wat gedoen was met emulsies. Daar is vasgestel dat die metode van kuring van die emulsies moet aangepas word om behoorlike kuring van die emulsies te verseker. Daar is ook gevind dat klipsoorte nie die BBS eienskappe in dieselfde mate as temperatuur en bindmiddel toepassingstipe beïnvloed het nie. Die BBS resultate van warm aangewende bindmiddels het ook nie aansienlik verhoog soos die kuringstyd toegeneem het nie, maar die resultate van emulsies het wel 'n toename getoon. Die emulsies het wel meer tyd nodig gehad om behoorlik te kuur.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95882
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