Tailoring quantum entanglement of orbital angular momentum

McLaren, Melanie (2014-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: High-dimensional quantum entanglement offers an increase in information capacity per photon; a highly desirable property for quantum information processes such as quantum communication, computation and teleportation. As the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of light span an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, they have become frontrunners in achieving entanglement in higher dimensions. In light of this, we investigate the potential of OAM entanglement of photons by controlling the parameters in both the generation and measurement systems. We show the experimental procedures and apparatus involved in generating and measuring entangled photons in two-dimensions. We verify important quantum tests such as the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox using OAM and angle correlations, as well as a violation of a Bell-type inequality. By performing a full state tomography, we characterise our quantum state and show we have a pure, highly entangled quantum state. We demonstrate that this method can be extended to higher dimensions. The experimental techniques used to generate and measure OAM entanglement place an upper bound on the number of accessible OAM modes. As such, we investigate new methods in which to increase the spiral bandwidth of our generated quantum state. We alter the shape of the pump beam in spontaneous parametric down-conversion and demonstrate an effect on both OAM and angle correlations. We also made changes to the measurement scheme by projecting the photon pairs into the Bessel-Gaussian (BG) basis and demonstrate entanglement in this basis. We show that this method allows the measured spiral bandwidth to be optimised by simply varying the continuous radial parameter of the BG modes. We demonstrate that BG modes can be entangled in higher dimensions compared with the commonly used helical modes by calculating and comparing the linear entropy and fidelity for both modes. We also show that quantum entanglement can be accurately simulated using classical light using back-projection, which allows the study of projective measurements and predicts the strength of the coincidence correlations in an entanglement experiment. Finally, we make use of each of the techniques to demonstrate the effect of a perturbation on OAM entanglement measured in the BG basis. We investigate the self-healing property of BG beams and show that the classical property is translated to the quantum regime. By calculating the concurrence, we see that measured entanglement recovers after encountering an obstruction.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hoë-dimensionele kwantumverstrengeldheid bied ’n toename in inligtingskapasiteit per foton. Hierdie is ’n hoogs wenslike eienskap vir kwantum inligting prosesse soos kwantum kommunikasie, berekening en teleportasie. Omdat die orbitale hoekmomentum (OAM) modusse van lig ’n oneindig dimensionele Hilbertruimte beslaan, het dit voorlopers geword in die verkryging van verstrengeling in hoër dimensies. In die lig hiervan, ondersoek ons die potensiaal van OAM verstrengeling van fotone deur die parameters in beide die generering en meting stelsels te beheer. Ons toon die eksperimentele prosedures en apparaat wat betrokke is by die generering en die meet van verstrengelde fotone in twee dimensies. Ons verifieer kwantumtoetse, soos die Einstein, Podolsky en Rosen (EPR) paradoks vir OAM en die hoekkorrelasies, sowel as ’n skending van ’n Bell-tipe ongelykheid. Deur middel van ’n volledige toestand tomografie, karakteriseer ons die kwantum toestand en wys ons dat dit ’n suiwer, hoogs verstrengel kwantum toestand is. Ons toon ook dat hierdie metode uitgebrei kan word na hoër dimensies. Die eksperimentele tegnieke wat tydens die generasie en meet van OAM verstrengeling gebruik is, plaas ’n bogrens op die aantal toeganklik OAM modusse. Dus ondersoek ons nuwe metodes om die spiraal bandwydte van ons gegenereerde kwantum toestand te verhoog. Ons verander die vorm van die pomp bundel in spontane parametriese af-omskakeling en demonstreer die uitwerking daarvan op beide OAM en die hoekkorrelasies. Ons het ook veranderinge aan die meting skema gemaak deur die foton pare op die Bessel-Gauss (BG) basis te projekteer. Ons wys dat hierdie metode die gemeetde spiraal bandwydte kan optimeer deur eenvoudig die kontinue radiale parameter van die BG modes te verander. Ons demonstreer dat BG modusse verstrengel kan word in hoër dimensies as die heliese modusse, wat algemeen gebruik word, deur berekeninge te maak en te vergelyk met lineêre entropie en vir beide modusse. Ons wys ook dat kwantumverstrengling akkuraat nageboots kan word, met behulp van die klassieke lig terug-projeksie, wat die studie van projeksie metings toelaat en voorspel die krag van die saamval korrelasies in ’n verstrengeling eksperiment. Ten slotte, gebruik ons elk van die tegnieke om die effek van ’n storing op OAM verstrengling wat in die BG basis gemeet is, te demonstreer. Ons ondersoek die self-genesingseienskap van BG bundels en wys dat die klassieke eienskap vertaal na die kwantum-gebied. Deur die berekening van die konkurrensie (concurrence), sien ons dat die gemeetde verstrengeling herstel word nadat ’n obstruksie ondervind is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95868
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