Nursing students perceptions and experiences of high fidelity simulation as a learning and teaching strategy in a resource limited setting

Munangatire, Takaedza (2014-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction and Background High fidelity simulation (HFS) refers to a mannequin that is modeled to represent a human and is programmed to produce physiologic functions such as palpable pulses, voices and abdominal sounds through computer interfaces. Recent introduction of HFS for learning nursing skills like critical thinking and problem solving in the developing world (Lesotho) has generated debate. The debate is centered on the acceptability of HFS, its effectiveness as a learning strategy compared to its high cost, especially in resource limited settings. Its acceptability in the developing world to date is mixed, affecting its ultimate utilization. Therefore contextual differences between developing and developed countries suggest that research findings on the evaluation of acceptability of HFS in the two places could be different. Additionally, health sciences education is a highly complex discipline with huge differences in practices within and across classes, schools, sites and countries, making it difficult to generalize findings from other settings to the setting of Lesotho. Aim The purpose of this study was to explore third year diploma in nursing students’ perceptions and experiences of HFS use in learning nursing skills. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was utilized to investigate HFS use at a school of nursing. Sixteen participants took part in three separate focus group discussions in two groups of five, and one group of six participants. The data was analyzed thematically. Results Students had mixed perceptions, positive and negative, based on the nature of their experiences which were both fulfilling and frustrating. This study revealed five key themes that shaped students experiences, hence perceptions of using HFS in learning. The themes are authentic learning environment, unique learning opportunities, access, contextual factors and transfer of skills. Discussion Student nurses had both positive and negative experiences of using HFS in learning. They believe that HFS is a valuable learning strategy but that it needs to be better utilized. Student nurses perceive HFS as providing an authentic learning environment which allows learning of complex skills like critical thinking and problem solving. On the other hand, they believe that learning can be improved if HFS is more accessible for use by students and if supervisors are adequately trained and students are better oriented on the use of HFS in learning. Conclusions HFS is viewed as an effective learning strategy among nursing students in resource limited settings, although there in need to improve its utilization for better learning experiences and outcomes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding en Agtergrond Hoëtrou-simulasie (HTS) verwys na ’n pop wat gemodelleer is om ’n mens te verteenwoordig en geprogrammeer is om fisiologiese funksies soos tasbare polse, stemme en abdominale klanke te lewer deur rekenaar-koppelvlakke. Onlangse bekendstelling van HTS in die aanleer van verpleegvaardighede soos kritiese denke en probleemoplossing in die ontwikkelende wêreld (Lesotho) het debat laat ontstaan. Die debat sentreer om die aanvaarbaarheid van HTS en sy effektiwiteit as ’n leerstrategie in vergelyking met sy hoë koste, veral in hulpbronbeperkte omgewings. HTS se aanvaarbaarheid op verskillende plekke in die ontwikkelende wêreld tot op datum is gemeng, wat die uiteindelike gebruik daarvan raak. Daarom dui kontekstuele verskille tussen ontwikkelende en ontwikkelde lande aan dat navorsingsbevindings oor die beoordeling van aanvaarbaarheid van HTS in die twee omgewings kan wissel. Bykomend is opleiding in die gesondheidswetenskappe ’n uiters komplekse dissipline met groot verskille in praktyke binne en oor klasse, skole, omgewings en lande, wat dit moeilik maak om bevindings van ander omgewings tot die omgewing van Lesotho te veralgemeen. Doel Die doel van hierdie studie was om derdejaar-diplomaverpleegstudente se persepsies en ervarings van die gebruik van HTS vir die aanleer van verpleegvaardighede te ondersoek. Metodes ’n Kwalitatiewe gevallestudieontwerp is benut om die verskynsel van HTS by Paray Verpleegkundeskool te ondersoek. Sestien deelnemers het aan die verskillende fokusgroepbesprekings deelgeneem in twee groepe van vyf, en een groep van ses deelnemers. Die data is ontleed met die gebruik van die konstante vergelykingsanalise-model. Resultate Studente het gemengde waarnemings, positief en negatief, ervaar, gebaseer op die aard van hul ondervindings wat sowel vervullend as frustrerend was. Hierdie studie het vyf sleuteltemas geopenbaar wat studente se ondervindings, en sodoende hul waarnemings van die gebruik van HTS in opleiding gevorm het. Die temas is outentieke leeromgewing, unieke leergeleenthede, toegang, kontekstuele faktore en oordrag van vaardighede. Bespreking Studentverpleegsters aanvaar die gebruik van HTS om verpleegvaardighede te leer. Hulle glo dat HTS ’n waardevolle leerstrategie is, wat egter beter benut moet word. Studentverpleegsters beskou HTS as ʼn verskaffer van ʼn outentieke leeromgewing wat die aanleer van komplekse vaardighede soos kritiese denke en probleemoplossing toelaat. Aan die ander kant glo hulle dat opleiding verbeter kan word indien HTS meer toeganklik is vir gebruik deur studente en indien toesighouers voldoende opgelei is en studente beter voorgelig word in die gebruik van HTS as opleidingsmiddel. Gevolgtrekkings HTS is ʼn aanvaarbare leerstrategie onder verpleegstudente in omgewings met beperkte hulpbronne, hoewel daar ʼn behoefte is om die benutting daarvan vir beter leerervarings en uitkomstes te verbeter.

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