The effect of Cyclopia maculata extract on β-cell function, protection against oxidative stress and cell survival

Chellan, Nireshni (2014-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Insights into the role of oxidative stress and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) reveals an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics that directly protect and preserve β-cells. The protective role of dietary antioxidants, such as plant polyphenols, against oxidative stress induced diseases, including T2D, is increasingly under scrutiny. Polyphenol-rich extracts of Cyclopia spp, containing mangiferin, may provide novel therapeutics. An aqueous extract of unfermented Cyclopia maculata, containing more than 6 % mangiferin, was assessed for its protective effect in pancreatic β-cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo under conditions characteristic of T2D. The effect of mangiferin was also evaluated in vitro and ex vivo, with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant control. In this study, we established in vitro toxicity models in RIN-5F insulinoma cells based on conditions β-cells are exposed to in T2D; i.e. lipotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress conditions. To achieve this, cells were exposed to the following stressors: palmitic acid (PA), a pro-inflammatory cytokine combination and streptozotocin (STZ), respectively. Thereafter, the ability of the C. maculata extract, mangiferin and NAC to protect RIN-5F cells from the effects of these stressors was assessed by measuring β-cell viability, function and oxidative stress. Cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, adenosine triphosphate and annexin-V and propidium iodide assays. Cell function was evaluated by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion, cell proliferation and cellular calcium. To assess oxidative stress in the RIN-5F cells, diaminofluorescein-FM and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity were measured. The in vitro findings were then verified in isolated pancreatic rat islets using methods and models established in the RIN-5F experiments. The protective effect of the extract, NAC and metformin was assessed in STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats, using two treatment regimes, i.e. by treating rats with established diabetes and by pretreating rats prior to induction of diabetes by STZ. Glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and pancreatic morphology were assessed by performing an oral glucose tolerance test, measuring serum insulin, triglycerides, nitrites, catalase and glutathione. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrotyrosine were also assessed. Immunohistochemical labelling of pancreata with insulin, glucagon and MIB-5 was used for morphological assessment. The extract improved β-cell viability, function and attenuated oxidative stress, most apparently in STZ and PA induced toxicity models comparable with NAC both in vitro and in isolated islets. Mangiferin was not as effective, showing only marginal improvement in RIN-5F cell and islet function, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment of STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats with extract was as effective as, if not better than, metformin in improving glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and pancreatic islet morphology related to improved β-cell function. This study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of unfermented C. maculata was able to protect pancreatic β-cells from STZ and PA induced toxicity in vitro and ex vivo. In vivo, pretreatment with the extract improved glucose metabolism and pancreatic islet morphology in STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Insigte oor die rol wat oksidatiewe stres en pankreas β-sel disfunksie in die patogenese van tipe 2-diabetes (T2D) speel, bied 'n geleentheid vir die ontwikkeling van nuwe terapeutiese middels wat β-selle direk daarteen beskerm. Die beskermende rol van antioksidante in die dieët soos plantaardige polifenole teen oksidatiewe stres geinduseerde siektes soos T2D, is toenemend onder die soeklig. Polifenolryk ekstrakte van Cyclopia spp wat mangiferin bevat mag nuwe terapeutiese middels lewer. ‘n Waterekstrak van ongefermenteerde Cyclopia maculata wat meer as 6% mangiferin bevat, is ondersoek vir sy beskermende effek op pankreas ß-selle in vitro, ex vivo en in vivo teen kondisies kenmerkend aan T2D. Die effek van mangiferin is ook in vitro en ex vivo geëvalueer, met N-asetielsistien (NAC) as 'n antioksidant kontrole. In hierdie studie is in vitro toksisiteitsmodelle in RIN-5F insulinoomselle gevestig. Die modelle is gebaseer op toestande waaraan β-selle blootgestel word tydens T2D; d.w.s. lipotoksisiteit, inflammasie en oksidatiewe stres. Hiervoor is die selle aan die volgende stressors blootgestel: palmitiensuur (PA), ‘n pro-inflammatoriese sitokien mengsel en streptozotosien (STZ). Vervolgens is die vermoë van die C. maculata ekstrak, mangiferin en NAC om die RIN-5Fselle teen hierdie stressors te beskerm, beoordeel deur die meting van β-sellewensvatbaarheid, funksie en oksidatiewe stres. Sellewensvatbaarheid is bepaal met 3-(4,5-dimetielthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-difenieltetrazolium bromied, adenosientrifosfaat en anneksien-V and propidium jodied toetse. Selfunksie is geëvalueer d.m.v. glukose gestimuleerde insuliensekresie, selproliferasie en sellulêre kalsium bepaling. Oksidatiewe stres in die RIN-5Fselle is geëvalueer d.m.v. diaminofluorescein-FM en dihidroethidium fluoressensie bepalings, asook meting van superoksied dismutase ensiemaktiwiteit. Die in vitro bevindings is daarna in geїsoleerde rot pankreaseilande bevestig deur die metodes en modelle wat in die RIN-5F eksperimente gebruik is. Die antidiabetiese effekte van die ekstrak, NAC en metformien in STZ-geїnduseerde diabetiese Wistar rotte is bepaal d.m.v. twee behandlingsregimes, d.w.s. die behandeling van rotte met gevestigde diabetes of deur die behandeling voor die induksie van diabetes te begin. Glukose metabolisme, oksidatiewe stres en veranderinge in die pankreasmorfologie is ondersoek d.m.v. orale glukose toleransie toetse en die bepaling van serum insulien, trigliseriedes, nitriete, katalase en glutationien. Hepatiese tiobarbituursuur reaktiewe stowwe en nitrotirosien is ook geëvalueer. Immunohistochemiese kleuring van pankreas snitte is gebruik vir morfologiese assessering van insulien, glukagon en MIB-5. Die ekstrak het mees opvallend β-sel lewensvatbaarheid en funksie verbeter, terwyl oksidatiewe stres verminder is in die STZ- en PA-geїnduseerde toksisiteitmodelle. Bogenoemde effekte van die ekstrak in vitro en in die geїsoleerde eilande was vergelykbaar met die van NAC. Mangiferin was minder effektief, met slegs ‘n marginale verbetering in die funksie van RIN-5Fselle en eilande, asook t.o.v. oksidatiewe stres. Behandeling van die Wistar rotte met die ekstrak voor induksie van diabetes met STZ was net so effektief, of selfs beter as metformien in terme van verbeterde glukosetoleransie, trigliseriedvlakke en die morfologie van pankreas eilande wat verband gehou het met β-sel funksie. Hierdie studie het getoon dat die waterekstrak van ongefermenteerde C. maculata pankreas β-selle teen veral STZ- en PA-geїnduseerde toksisiteit in vitro en ex vivo beskerm het. In vivo het behandeling met die ekstrak voor en na induksie van diabetes, glukosemetabolisme en die morfologie van pankreas eilande in STZ-geїnduseerde diabetiese Wistar rotte verbeter.

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