Reducing height and lodging in canola (Brassica napus L.) using plant growth regulators

Eksteen, Lambertus Lochner (2014-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, canola (Brassica napus L.) is produced under short day conditions during winter months. These conditions, together with high fertiliser application levels required to maximize grain yields, often result in tall growing bulky crops which are prone to lodging. This will especially be true if canola production is expanded to irrigated areas. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) have successfully been used to reduce canola plant height and lodging under experimental conditions in Australia and are worldwide commercially used to reduce plant height and lodging in winter cereals such as wheat and barley. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of anti-lodging PGRs on the agronomic and quality characteristics of commercial canola cultivars under South African conditions. This study was conducted under field conditions at three research farms, as well as controlled glasshouse conditions at Welgevallen Research Farm, situated in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Foliar treatments consisted of a control (untreated) and four PGRs; CeCeCe® 750 (chlormequat chloride), Moddus® 250 EC (trinexapac-ethyl), Primo MAXX® (trinexapac-ethyl), and Kelpak®, applied either individually or in combination with wetting agent at budding stage (growth stage 3.1) of canola. Whilst glasshouse trials were conducted with spring canola cultivars “Hyola 555TT” and “43C80”, field trials were done with Hyola 555TT only. Monitoring and measuring various plant parameters during different growth stages of canola, the morphological and physiological impact of PGR-treatments on growth and development were determined. Though Primo MAXX® tends to reduce plant height in all trials; reductions were only significant during one of the glasshouse trials. Fortunately, compared to the control, none of the PGRs significantly reduced the leaf area, number of flowers or number of pods plant-1 during this study, while Primo MAXX® and Moddus® 250 EC tend to increase the grain yield under field conditions. This study indicates that PGRs can possibly be used to improve lodging resistance and yield of canola. Identifying the most effective PGRs on specific cultivars, the results of the study will contribute to the knowledge of using PGRs in canola to reduce lodging and improve grain yields in South Africa.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Suid-Afrika word canola (Brassica napus L) gedurende die wintermaande onder kort-dagtoestande verbou. Hierdie verbouingstoestande, tesame met verhoogde toediening van bemesting vir maksimum opbrengs, lei dikwels tot welige, hooggroeiende plantegroei, wat „n geneigdheid toon om om te val (lodge). Hierdie probleem vererger indien canola onder besproeiingstoestande gekweek sou word. Plantgroeireguleerders (PGRs) is reeds met sukses onder eksperimentele toestande in Australië gebruik om die planthoogte en dus omval (lodging) van canola te beperk. Plantgroeireguleerders word reeds kommersieel gebruik om planthoogte en omval van wintergraangewasse, soos koring en gars te verminder. Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie was om die effek van omval-teenwerkende PGRs op die agronomiese en kwaliteitseienskappe van kommersiële canola-kultivars onder Suid-Afrikaanse groeitoestande te bepaal. Hierdie studie is uitgevoer d.m.v. veldproewe op drie navorsingsplase, sowel as gekontrolleerde glashuisproewe te Welgevallen Navorsingsplaas, geleë in die Wes-Kaapprovinsie van Suid-Afrika. Blaartoedienings het bestaan uit „n kontrole (onbehandeld) en vier PGRs: CeCeCe® 750 (chlormequat chloride), Moddus® 250 EC (trinexapac-ethyl), Primo MAXX® (trinexapac-ethyl) en Kelpak®, wat afsonderlik of in kombinasie met benattingsmiddels toegedien is tydens die blomknopverskyningstadium (groeistadium 3.1) van canola. Die glashuisproewe is uitgevoer met lente-canolakultivars, nl. “Hyola 555TT” en “43C80”, terwyl veldproewe slegs uitgevoer is met Hyola 555TT. Verskeie plantparameters is gemonitor en gemeet gedurende die verskillende groeistadia van canola, waartydens en die morfologiese en fisiologiese impak van PGR-toedienings op die groei- en ontwikkeling van canola bepaal is. Alhoewel Primo MAXX® neig om die planthoogte in al die proewe te verkort, het dit planthoogte slegs beduidend verkort in een van die glashuisproewe. Geen van die PGRs het in vergelyking met die kontrole, die blaar-oppervlakte, aantal blomme of aantal peule plant-1 beduidend verminder gedurende die studie. Primo MAXX® en Moddus® 250 EC het inteendeel daartoe geneig om die saadopbrengs onder veldtoestande te verhoog. Hierdie studie toon dus dat PGRs moontlik gebruik kan word om omval te verminder en die opbrengs van canola te verhoog. Deur die mees doeltreffendste PGRs op spesifieke kultivars te identifiseer, kan die resultate van hierdie studie bydra tot die kennis van die gebruik van PGRs op canola, om omval te voorkom en saadopbrengs in Suid-Afrika te verhoog.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95845
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