Predicting water quality in bulk distribution systems

Rust, Tertius (2014-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The increased water demand to be supplied by municipal water distribution systems, and subsequent increased storage period of reserve water, may have implications with regards to water ageing and subsequently may have an impact on health and safety. Current master planning design standards could have a negative effect on water residence time. The decay of the disinfectant potential is a function of the residence time in the distribution system. The objective of this study is to identify and measure existing systems to optimally increase water quality in a distribution system while supplying an increase in demand, dealing with the deterioration of pipe infrastructure and the introduction of alternative water sources. To do this, one must understand the dynamics of water networks and the parameters that affect water quality. The foundation of a water quality model is based on the construction of an accurate hydraulic model. To identify and measure these systems, one must understand the aspects of water purification and the techniques used to achieve water standards in a distribution system. These techniques and standards play a huge role in the prediction of water quality. In this paper the fundamentals and techniques used to determine and measure such a model are discussed. Consequently, additional design parameters to assess water quality must be incorporated into current master planning practice to optimally design water networks. These models are used to determine the appropriate levels of disinfectant at strategic locations in a system. To illustrate these design parameters and systems currently used in practice, a case study involving Umgeni Water (UW) and EThekwini municipality (EWS) was used to determine the most suitable disinfectant strategy for a municipality’s distribution system. Future scenarios and the impact of disinfectant mixing and increased residence time of the water in the system were also determined. The use of this water quality model in a distribution system will ultimately provide a sustainable platform for a risk monitoring procedure.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verhoogde aanvraag na water in munisipale voorsieningstelsels, en die daaropvolgende verhoogde stoortydperk van reserwe water, kan implikasies inhou met betrekking tot water veroudering waarna dit ‘n impak op gesondheid en veiligheid kan hê. Huidige meesterbeplanning ontwerpstandaarde kan 'n noemenswaardige uitwerking op water retensietyd hê, veral omdat chloor se vervaltyd op sy beurt 'n funksie van water retensietyd is. Die doel van hierdie studie is om 'n prosedure te identifiseer om watergehalte optimaal te verhoog in 'n waterverspreidingstelsel, terwyl die toename in water aanvraag voortduur. Om dit te kan doen moet die dinamika van water netwerke en die parameters wat die gehalte van water beïnvloed, bestudeer word. Die opstel van 'n waterkwaliteit model is gebaseer op die bou van 'n akkurate hidrouliese model. Om uiteindelik die ontwerp van 'n waterkwaliteit oplossing suksevol uit te voer, moet 'n mens al die aspekte van watersuiwering en die tegnieke wat gebruik word om waterstandaarde te handhaaf in 'n verspreidingstelsel verstaan. In hierdie verslag word die beginsels en tegnieke wat gebruik word om so 'n model op te stel, bespreek. Bykomende waterkwaliteit ontwerpparameters moet by huidige meesterbeplanning gevoeg word om waternetwerke optimaal te ontwerp. Hierdie modelle word gebruik om die geskikte vlakke van ontsmettingsmiddel op strategiese plekke in 'n stelsel te bepaal. 'n Gevallestudie van Umgeni Water (UW) en eThekwini-munisipaliteit (EWS) is gebruik om die mees geskikte ontsmettingsmiddel strategie vir 'n munisipaliteit se verspreiding te illustreer. Toekomstige scenario's en die impak van ontsmettingsmiddelvermenging en verhoogde retensietyd van die water in die stelsel sal ook bepaal kan word. Die gebruik van hierdie gehalte-watermodel in 'n verspreidingstelsel sal uiteindelik 'n volhoubare platform vir 'n risiko moniteringstelsel inhou.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95838
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