Sources of variation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars of the Western and Southern Cape. II. Baking characteristics
Protein content and quality determine flour quality, as well as the success of bread-baking. The stability of wheat quality characteristics is of great importance to the milling and baking industry, who have to produce an end product of acceptable and consistent quality to the consumers. It is, therefore important to classify cultivars and production regions according to their ability to produce high quality wheat grain. Seven spring wheat cultivars were grown at nine localities for the period 1992 to 1995 for the purpose of this study. The effect of cultivar, environment and their interaction on water absorption, Alveograph characteristics and loaf volume were described by AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction) analyses. Environment was found to be by far the most important contributor to variance for all the characteristics determined. Except for water absorption, where the effect of cultivar was not significant, cultivar, environments, as well as cultivar x environment interaction, significantly affected all these characteristics. SST16 showed considerable cultivar x environment interaction for water absorption, Alveograph W-value and loaf volume, indicating a lack in stability for these parameters. Adam Tas, on the other hand, showed sensitivity for the Alveograph characteristics. This tendency may be ascribed to the effect of cultivar x environment interaction on grain protein content. Cultivar reaction may, therefore, differ from year to year at the same locality.