Value of bone marrow biopsy in children with suspected disseminated mycobacterial disease

Rose P.C. ; Schaaf H.S. ; Marais B.J. ; Gie R.P. ; Stefan D.C. (2011)


BACKGROUND: Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is a severe form of disease that can be difficult to diagnose or exclude. The diagnostic role of bone marrow biopsy and culture in children with suspected disseminated TB is not clearly defined. METHODOLOGY: In a prospective hospital-based study conducted from November 2007 to October 2008, bone marrow biopsy and culture were performed in all children referred with possible disseminated TB; relevant clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were included in the study. An alternative diagnosis was established in 10 (29%) and mycobacterial disease confirmed or probable in 25 (71%). Among those with mycobacterial disease, multiple respiratory specimens provided the best yield (17/25; 68%). Bone marrow histology and/or culture were positive in 5/25 (20%), but were frequently collected after initiation of TB treatment. Blood cultures were positive in only one patient. Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for 16/19 (84%) confirmed cases, M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin for one, M. avium complex for one, and one was culture-negative. Histology results were available within 24 hours; TB was confirmed exclusively by bone marrow in two cases. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow biopsy is a valuable diagnostic procedure in children with suspected disseminated mycobacterial disease. Ideally, patients should be referred prior to treatment initiation.

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