The role of novel protein-protein interactions in the function and mechanism of the sarcomeric protein, myosin binding protein H (MyBPH)

Mouton, Jacoba Martina (2014-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is a feature of common diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes. It is therefore vital to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing its development. However, investigating the mechanisms underlying LVH in such complex disorders can be challenging. For this reason, many researchers have focused their attention on the autosomal dominant cardiac muscle disorder, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), since it is considered a model disease in which to study the causal molecular factors underlying isolated cardiac hypertrophy. HCM is a heterogeneous disease that manifests with various phenotypes and clinical symptoms, even in families with the same genetic defects, suggesting that additional factors contribute to the disease phenotype. Despite the identification of several HCM-causing genes, the genetic factors that modify the extent of hypertrophy in HCM patients remain relatively unknown. The gene encoding the sarcomeric protein, cardiac myosin binding protein C, cMyBPC (MyBPC3) is one of the most frequently implicated genes in HCM. Identification of proteins that interact with cMyBPC has led to improved insights into the function of this protein and its role in cardiac hypertrophy. However, very little is known about another member of the myosin binding protein family, myosin binding protein H (MyBPH). Given the sequence homology and similarity in structure between cMyBPC and MyBPH, we propose that MyBPH, like cMyBPC, may play a critical role in the structure and functionality of the cardiac sarcomere and could therefore be involved in HCM pathogenesis. The present study aimed to identify MyBPH-interacting proteins by using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis and to verify these interactions using three-dimensional (3D) co-localisation and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analyses. We further hypothesized that both MyBPH and cMyBPC may be involved in autophagy. To test this hypothesis, both MyBPH and cMyBPC were analysed for co-localisation with a marker for autophagy, LC3b-II. The role of MyBPH and cMyBPC in cardiac cell contractility were analysed by measuring the planar cell surface area of differentiated H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes in response to β-adrenergic stress after individual and concurrent siRNA-mediated knockdown of MyBPH and cMyBPC. In the present study we employed a family-based genetic association analysis approach to investigate the contribution of genes encoding the novel MyBPH-interacting proteins in modifying the hypertrophy phenotype. This study investigated the hypertrophy modifying effects of 38 SNPs and haplotypes in four candidate HCM modifier genes, in 388 individuals from 27 HCM families, in which three unique South African HCM-causing founder mutations segregate. Yeast two-hybrid analysis identified three putative MyBPH-interacting proteins namely, cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7), cardiac α-actin (ACTC1) and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 (UBC9). These interactions were verified using both 3D co-localisation and Co-IP analyses. Furthermore, MyBPH and cMyBPC were implicated in autophagy, since both these proteins were being recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes. In addition, a cardiac contractility assay demonstrated that the concurrent siRNA-mediated knockdown of MyBPH and cMyBPC resulted in a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte contractility, compared to individual protein and control knockdowns under conditions of β-adrenergic stress. These results indicated that MyBPH could compensate for cMyBPC, and vice versa, further confirming that both these proteins are required for efficient sarcomere contraction. Results from genetic association analyses found a number of SNPs and haplotypes that had a significant effect on HCM hypertrophy. Single SNP and haplotype analyses identified SNPs and haplotypes within genes encoding MyBPH, MYH7, ACTC1 and UBC9, which contribute to the extent of hypertrophy in HCM. In addition, we found that several variants and haplotypes had markedly different statistical significant effects in the presence of each of the three HCM founder mutations. The results of this study ascribe novel functions to MyBPH. Cardiac MyBPC and MyBPH play a critical role in sarcomere contraction and have been implicated in autophagy. This has further implications for understanding the patho-etiology of HCM-causing mutations in the gene encoding MyBPH and its interacting proteins. This is to our knowledge the first genetic association analysis to investigate the modifying effect of interactors of MyBPH, as indication of the risk for developing LVH in the context of HCM. Our findings suggest that the hypertrophic phenotype of HCM is modulated by the compound effect of a number of variants and haplotypes in MyBPH, and genes encoding protein interactors of MyBPH. These results provide a basis for future studies to investigate the risk profile of hypertrophy development in the context of HCM, which could consequently lead to improved risk stratification and patient management.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Linker ventrikulêre hipertrofie (LVH) is 'n primêre risikofaktor vir kardiovaskulêre morbiditeit en mortaliteit asook 'n kenmerk van algemene siektes soos hipertensie en diabetes. Daarom is dit van kardinale belang om te verstaan wat die onderliggende meganismes is wat die ontwikkeling van LVH beïnvloed. Die ondersoek na die onderliggende meganismes wat lei tot LVH in sulke komplekse siektes is ‟n uitdaging. Om hierdie rede fokus baie navorsers hul aandag op die autosomaal dominante hartspier siekte, hipertrofiese kardiomiopatie (HKM), wat beskou word as 'n model siekte om die molekulêre oorsake onderliggend tot geïsoleerde kardiovaskulêre hipertrofie te ondersoek. HKM is 'n heterogene siekte wat manifesteer met verskeie fenotipes en kliniese simptome, selfs in families met dieselfde genetiese defekte, wat impliseer dat addisionele faktore bydra tot die modifisering van die siekte fenotipe. Ten spyte van die identifisering van verskeie HKM-versoorsakende gene, bly die genetiese faktore wat die mate van hipertrofie in HKM pasiente modifiseer relatief onbekend. Die geen wat kodeer vir die sarkomeriese proteïen, kardiale miosien-bindingsproteïen C (kMyBPC) is die algemeenste betrokke in HKM. Die identifisering van proteïene wat bind met kMyBPC het gelei tot verbeterde insigte tot die funksie van hierdie proteïen en die rol wat hierdie proteïen in hipertrofie speel. Ten spyte hiervan, is daar baie min inligting beskikbaar oor 'n ander lid van die miosien-bindingsproteïen families, miosien-bindingsproteïen H (MyBPH). Gegewe die ooreenstemming tussen die DNA basispaar-volgorde en struktuur tussen hierdie twee proteïene, stel ons voor dat MyBPH, net soos kMyBPC, 'n kritiese rol in die struktuur en funksie van die kardiale sarkomeer speel en kan daarom betrokke wees in die patogenese van HKM. Die huidige studie het beoog om proteïene wat met MyBPH bind te identifiseer deur die gebruik van gis-twee-hibried (G2H) kardiale biblioteek sifting en om hierdie interaksies te verifieer met behulp van drie-dimensionele (3D) ko-lokalisering en ko-immunopresipitasie eksperimente. Ons het verder gehipotiseer dat beide MyBPH and kMyBPC betrokke kan wees in outofagie. Om hierdie hipotese te toets is beide MyBPH en kMyBPC geanaliseer vir ko-lokalisering met 'n merker vir outofagie, LC3b-II. Verder het ons beplan om die rol van MyBPH en kMyBPC in kardiale spiersel-sametrekking te ondersoek deur die oppervlak van gedifferensieerde H9c2 rot kardiomiosiete in reaksie op β-adrenergiese stres te meet, na individuele en gesamentlike siRNA-bemiddelde uitklopping van MyBPH en kMyBPC. In hierdie studie het ons 'n familie-gebaseerde genetiese assosiasie analise benadering gevolg om vas te stel of MyBPH en gene wat kodeer vir die geverifieerde bindingsgenote van MyBPH bydra tot die modifisering van die hipertrofiese fenotipe. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die hipertrofiese effek van 38 enkel nukleotied polimorfismes (SNPs) en haplotipes in vier kandidaat HKM modifiserende gene in 388 individue van 27 HCM families te toets, waarin drie unieke Suid-Afrikaanse HKM-stigters mutasies segregeer. G2H analise het drie verneemde MyBPH bindingsgenote geidentifiseer, naamlik miosien (MYH7), alfa kardiale aktien (ACTC1) en die SUMO-konjugerende ensiem UBC9 (UBC9). Hierdie interaksies is geverifieer deur middel van 3D ko-lokalisering en ko-immunopresipitasie analises. Verder is bewys dat MyBPH en kMyBPC betrokke is in outofagie, siende dat beide proteïene gewerf is tot die membraan van die outofagosoom. 'n Kardiale sametrekkings eksperiment het gevind dat die gesamentlike siRNA-bemiddelde uitklopping van MyBPH en kMyBPC 'n merkwaardige vermindering in die kardiomiosiet sametrekking veroorsaak het in reaksie op β-adrenergiese stres kondisies, in vergelyking met die individuele proteïen en kontrole uitkloppings eksperimente. Hierdie resultate bevestig dat MyBPH vir kMyBPC kan instaan en ook andersom, wat verder bevestig dat beide proteïene benodig word vir effektiewe sarkomeer sametrekking. Resultate van die genetiese assosiasie studie het gevind dat 'n aantal SNPs en haplotipes 'n beduidende effek of HKM hipertrofie het. Enkel SNP en haplotipe analises in gene wat kodeer vir MyBPH, MYH7, ACTC1 en UBC9 het SNPs en haplotipes geidentifiseer wat bydra tot die omvang van hipertrofie in HKM. Verder het ons gevind dat sekere SNPs en haplotipes kenmerkend verskillende statisties beduidende effekte in die teenwoordigheid van elk van die drie HKM-stigter mutasies gehad het. Die resultate van hierdie studie skryf twee nuwe funksies aan MyBPH toe. Kardiale MyBPC en MyBPH speel 'n kritiese rol in sarkomeer sametrekking en is betrokke in outofagie. Hierdie resultate het verdere implikasies vir die verstaan van die pato-etiologie van die HKM-veroorsakende mutasies in die MyBPH, MYH7, ACTC1 en UBC9 gene. So vêr dit ons kennis strek is dit die eerste genetiese assosiasie studie wat die modifiserende effek van bindingsgenote van MyBPH ondersoek as risiko aanduiding vir die ontwikkeling van LVH in die konteks van HKM. Ons bevindinge bewys dat die hipertrofiese fenotipe van HKM gemoduleer word deur die komplekse effekte van SNPs en haplotipes in die MyBPH geen en gene wat MyBPH proteïen-bindingsgenote enkodeer. Hierdie resultate verskaf dus 'n basis vir toekomstige studies om die risiko profiel van hipertrofie ontwikkeling met betrekking tot HKM te ondersoek, wat gevolglik kan bydra tot die verbeterde risiko stratifikasie en pasiënte bestuur.

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