Factors that influence attitude, beliefs and barriers of caregivers regarding complementary feeding practices of infants aged 6 – 12 months in the Breede valley district of the Western Cape

Matthysen, Mariska (2014-04)

Thesis (Mnutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Inappropriate feeding practices are a major cause of malnutrition in young children. Within this context, it has been well documented that the incidence of malnutrition rises sharply during the period from six to 18 months of age in most countries. Complementary feeding typically covers the period from six to 24 months of age. Renewed focus has been placed on the promotion of breastfeeding. Similar attention should be paid to complementary feeding. Six percent of deaths per year are preventable through good complementary feeding practises. To improve infant nutrition it is important to know the local infant and young child feeding practises present in communities but also to identify and understand the underlying factors that influence these practises. Aim The study aimed to describe the various factors that influence complementary feeding practices of infants aged 6 – 12 months in 2 communities (Avian Park and Zweletemba) in the Breede Valley district of the Western Cape. Methods The study was conducted from May – July 2012. A descriptive study design was used. A qualitative approach was followed with the use of focus group discussions with mothers / primary caregivers, fathers and grandmothers of infants aged 6 – 12 months. Results The findings of this study provide insight into different aspects regarding early cessation of breastfeeding that could lead to early introduction of complementary foods. In both Avian Park and Zweletemba the age of introduction of liquids and solids ranged from birth to 12 months. Various liquids such as water, over the counter medicine, high concentrated sugar beverages and low nutrient beverages were given to infants from as young as two days post-partum by means of a feeding bottle. Cow’s milk was also introduced before six months of age for reasons such as affordability, availability and because cow’s milk does not need boiling water for reconstitution like formula milk, especially when access to electricity is inadequate. Infants from both communities also received meelbol (flour and water beverage) fed either via feeding bottles (as a beverage) or as porridge fed to the infant with a spoon. Porridge (especially rice cereal and maize meal porridge) was introduced to infants from one week post-partum and infants from both areas also received family “food from the pot” before the age of 6 months. In this study it was found that it was most often a female (either the mother or the grandmother) in the household who was responsible for buying and preparing food and for feeding the infant. Health care workers, members of the mothers’ household as well as community members were identified as key role players in conveying information regarding breastfeeding and complementary feeding from birth to 1 year. Various factors were identified in this study that influenced suboptimal infant feeding practises in Avian Park and Zweletemba. The main factors identified were i) health, ii) physiological, iii) nutritional, iv) educational, v) behavioural, vi) financial and vii) social factors. Other aspects mentioned were viii) demographic and x) commercial factors. Conclusion Results indicated that the current practices and factors influencing the feeding practices in Avian Park and Zweletemba were similar there was very little to no cultural differences between the two communities in terms of current practices and influencing factors. The findings of this study have highlighted the importance of involving all household members in interventions, as well as the larger community in a public nutrition approach. Factors influencing current feeding practises should be considered carefully when planning future interventions to improve infant feeding practises.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Onvanpaste voedingspraktyke is ‘n groot oorsaak van wanvoeding in jong kinders. Binne hierdie konteks is dit goed gedokumenteer dat die voorkoms van wanvoeding skerp styg gedurende die tydperk vanaf ses tot 18 maande ouderdom in die meeste lande. Komplimentêre voeding dek tipies die tydperk van ses tot 24 maande oud. Hernude fokus word geplaas op die bevordering van borsvoeding. Komplimentêre voeding behoort soortgelyke aandag te kry. Ses persent van sterftes per jaar is voorkombaar deur goeie komplimentêree voedingpraktyke. Om kindervoeding te verbeter is dit belangrik om bekend te wees met plaaslike baba- en jong kind praktyke in gemeenskappe, en ook om die onderliggende faktore wat hierdie praktyke beïnvloed te identifiseer en verstaan. Doelwit Hierdie studie het gepoog om die verskillende faktore ten opsigte van die komplimentêre voeding praktyke van babas tussen 6 – 12 maande te beskryf in 2 gemeenskappe (Avian Park en Zweletemba) in die Breede Vallei distrik van die Wes-Kaap. Metodes Die studie is uitgevoer vanaf Mei – Julie 2012. ‘n Beskrywende studie ontwerp is gebruik. ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg met die gebruik van fokusgroepbesprekings met moeders / primêre versorgers, vaders en oumas van babas tussen 6 – 12 maande. Resultate Die bevindinge van hierdie studie voorsien insae in die verskillende aspekte van die vroeë beëindiging van borsvoeding wat kan lei tot vroeë bekendstelling van komplimentêre voeding. In beide Avian Park en Zweletemba het die ouderdomme van insluiting van vloeistowwe en vaste stowwe gewissel van geboorte tot 12 maande.Verskeie vloeistowwe soos water, oor-die-toonbank-medisyne, hoë konsentrasie suiker drankies en lae voedingswaarde drankies was aan babas gegee so vroeg as twee dae post-partum deur middel van ‘n voedingsbottel. Koeimelk was ook gegee voor 6 maande, om redes soos bekostigbaarheid, beskikbaarheid en omdat koeimelk nie kookwater benodig vir hersamestelling soos formule melk nie, veral in situasies waar toegang tot elektrisiteit onvoldoende is. Babas van beide gemeenskappe was ook meelbol (meel en water drankie) gevoer óf via voedingsbottels (as ‘n vloeistof) of as ‘n pap wat gevoer word met ‘n lepel. Pap (veral ryspap en mieliemeelpap) was gegee vanaf een week post-partum en babas van beide gebiede het ook familie kookkos ontvang “vanuit die pot” voor 6 maande. In hierdie studie is bevind dat dit heel dikwels ‘n vrou (óf die moeder of ouma) in die huishouding is wat verantwoordelik is vir die koop en voorbereiding van voedsel asook die voer van die baba. Gesondheidswerkers, lede van die moeder se huishouding sowel as lede van die gemeenskap is geïdentifiseer as belangrike rolspelers in die oordrag van inligting oor borsvoeding en komplimentêre voeding vanaf geboorte tot een jaar. Die belangrikste faktore geïdentifiseer was verwant aan: i) gesondheid, ii) fisiologie, iii) voedingswaarde , iv) opvoedkunde, v) gedrag, vi) finansies en vii) sosiale faktore. Ander aspekte genoem is: vii) demografiese en x) kommersiële faktore. Gevolgtrekking Resultate het aangedui dat die huidige voedingpraktyke soortgelyk was in Avian Park en Zweletemba en dat daar baie min kulturele verskille tussen die twee gemeenskappe was in soverre huidige praktyke en faktore wat dit beïnvloed. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie het die belangrikheid daarvan uitgelig om al die lede van die huishouding, sowel as die breër gemeenskap in te sluit in intervensies met ‘n openbare voeding benadering. Faktore wat die huidige babavoeding praktyke beïnvloed moet versigtig oorweeg word tydens die beplanning van toekomstige intervensies om babavoeding praktyke te verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86713
This item appears in the following collections: