Configurations of a piled row breakwater for a protected shallow water marina

Gous, Werner (2014-04)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For the safekeeping or harbouring of small craft, whether for leisure or commercial use, a tranquil basin is the principle requirement in designing a functional harbour facility. Waves transmitted through the perimeter structures of a marina result in agitation of the basin and thereby a reduction in tranquillity. Similarly, waves reflected off the perimeter structures that line entrance channels could result in difficulty when manoeuvring through the entrance channel water areas. An alternative to the conventional breakwater becomes a necessity when the conventional mass-filled or caisson breakwaters are not feasible in technical or financial terms. One of the alternative options could be to consider a piled row breakwater. In broad terms, this consists of closely spaced piles that attenuate wave energy whilst not forming an impermeable barrier, allowing for currents and sediment to pass through. When comparing the different options for creating a piled row breakwater the quantity of material used to achieve a desired level of wave dissipation could be the most important aspect in considering possible alternatives, as this would relate directly to construction costs and time when considering implementation. A literature review revealed multiple references to theories that predicted the transmitted and reflected waves for various breakwater porosities and wave conditions. However, there is limited coverage in literature enabling prospective designers. For example, literature describing the applicable ranges of shape configurations that one should start off with when developing concepts is not readily available. This thesis study used physical modelling to compare the wave transmission properties of breakwaters comprised of three different piled element shapes, namely round, square and diagonal square piles. The pile element shapes are compared for varying porosity values over a range of input wave parameters. A comparison of the transmission incurred by these configurations with previous work is presented and it was found that the physical model experiment closely simulated the predicted values. The tests were scaled from actual conditions in possible marina locations and therefore the performance criteria measured could be applied in reverse to potential site locations. From analysis of the physical model results, it was clear that the highest energy loss was found, in general, to occur with low porosities (below 10%), as could be expected. For a fixed screen configuration in terms of pile element shape and porosity, the performance is heavily dependent on wave steepness, the steeper waves incurring a lower transmission coefficient than the less steep waves. For a given porosity, circular piles performed the best (transmit the least) followed by square piles and then diagonal square. When comparing the material used, diagonal square piles yielded better performing breakwaters due to the expanded cross section gained in elevation. The work has provided useful insight into the performance of piled row breakwaters in restricting transmission of wave energy. Design guidance has been provided when considering the parameters for deriving conceptual layouts for piled row breakwater structures. Recommendations were put forward for further work in this field, including potential study areas, data gathering, and study methods, as well as more applied uses of piles, for example in combination with other elements in a marina.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: die veilige bewaring van klein vaartuie, hetsy vir ontspanning of kommersiële gebruik, is die hoofvereiste in die ontwerp van 'n funksionele hawe fasiliteit dat die beskermde hawegebied ‘n rustende water oppervlak sal moet handhaaf. Golwe wat oorgedra word deur die omtrek golfbrekers van ‘n hawe deur middel van transmissie veroorsaak oppervlak versteurings in die hawe bak en dus ook ongewensde versteurings in die vasmeer kondisies. Op ‘n soortgelyke wyse, veroorsaak golwe wat gereflekteer word vanaf die toegangs kanaal golfbrekers problematiese kondisies vir die navigeer van bote deur die kanaal. Die behoefte aan 'n golfbreker alternatief vir die konvensionele oplossing word genoodsaak wanneer die konvensionele stortrots of caisson golfbrekers nie haalbaar is nie as gevolg van tegniese of finansiële aspekte (Park et al. 2000). Een van die opsies wat oorweeg kan word as 'n alternatief is ‘n heipaal-ry tipe breekwater. In breë terme, bestaan dit uit naby gespasieërde heipale om golf energie te breek, sonder om ‘n ondeurdringbare versperring te vorm. Wanneer die verskillende opsies vir die skep van 'n heipaal-ry tipe breekwater vergelyk word, kan die hoeveelheid konstruksie materiaal benodig per opsie die belangrikste vergelykende parameter word. Die rede hiervoor is die direkte verwantskap aan konstruksie kostes sowel as tyd aspekte wat gepaardgaan met die konstruksie materiaal hoeveelhede. Vanuit die literatuurstudie is verskeie verwysings geïdentifiseer waarin vorige teorieë oor oordrag en refleksie van golwe evalueer word vir wisselende porositeit waardes en intree golf waardes. Daar is egter 'n beperkte dekking in die literatuur wat ontwerps-riglyne betref. Byvoorbeeld, die toepaslike omvang van die vorm konfigurasies wat oorweeg moet word wanneer konsep ontwerp gedoen word, is nie geredelik beskikbaar nie. Hierdie tesis vergelyk, deur middel van fisiese skaal model toetse, drie heipaal-ry element vorms, naamlik ronde, vierkantige en diagonal geroteerde vierkante vir verskillende porositeit waardes oor 'n verskeidenheid van golf inset parameters. 'n Vergelyking is getref tussen die toetsdata en vorige werk en daar is bevind dat die fisiese model eksperiment die voorspelde waades uit die literatuur redelik akkuraat kon naboots. Die toets kondisies is geskaal vanaf werklike moontlike marina terreine en dus kon die toets resultate toegepas word in die ontwerp van potensiële terreine. Vanuit die data-analise, is waargeneem dat die hoogste energie verliese oor die algemeen plaasvind by laer porosititeit waardes (onder 10%) soos wat verwag kon word. Vir 'n gegewe golfbreker opset, in terme van die heipaal element vorm en porositeit, is die verrigting hoogs afhanklik van die golf steilheid, met hoër verrigting by steiler golwe. Vir 'n gegewe porositeit, sal ronde heipaal elemente die beste verrigting gee, gevolg deur vierkante heipale en laastens diagonal geroteerde vierkante. Vir soortgelyke hoeveelheid heipale, sal diagonal geroteerde vierkante beter verrigting lewer moontlik as gevolg van die verlengde deursnit dimensie in vooraansig. Hierdie navorsing het goeie insig verskaf oor golfdeurlaatbaarheid en weerkaatsing van heipaalry breekwaters. Ontwerp riglyne word ook verskaf wat betref die parameters wat gebruik kan word vir die konsep ontwikkelings fase vir heipaal-ry breekwaters. Aanbevelings word gemaak vir verdere navorsingswerk in hierdie veld, insluitend moontlike studie-areas, data insameling, studie metodes, sowel as vir meer toegepasde situasies, byvoorbeeld waar die heipaal elemente in kombinasie met ander marina komponente ontwerp moet word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86710
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