Development and testing of a standardized training manual : diet and the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus : a comprehensive guide for health practitioners

Rausch, Ursula (2014-03)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Objective: To develop and test a marketable, Continuing Professional Development (CPD) accredited training manual focused on the role of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) for healthcare professionals (HCP) of the multidisciplinary Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) management team. Methods: The study consisted of two components: (a) development of the MNT manual and (b) testing of the MNT manual. The development of the MNT manual consisted of seven steps: (1) needs assessment and problem definition; (2) literature search; (3) draft one of the MNT manual; (4) peer review; (5) draft two of the MNT manual; (6) evaluation by means of a survey; and (7) the final MNT manual. The testing of the MNT manual’s impact on knowledge had a test-retest design which consisted of seven steps: (1) DM knowledge questionnaire development; (2) participant recruitment; (3) questionnaire pilot; (4) initial knowledge testing; (5) self-study of MNT manual; (6) retesting of knowledge; (7) statistical analysis. Results: From the literature a total of 132 published documents were selected for inclusion in the MNT manual after grading of the information. The first draft was compiled and sent for peer review and language editing. Recommended changes were made and the second draft was developed and sent to 79 registered dietitians (RDs) who volunteered to complete a survey after reading the MNT manual. The survey indicated that the majority were satisfied with the content, which in turn led to the final MNT manual.The questionnaire was compiled using the content of the MNT manual and creating 10 questions per section of the manual. The pilot was conducted using 10% (n = 7) of the total sample. Minor changes were made. For knowledge testing, participants included RDs between the ages of 23 and 60 years, registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. A test-retest design was used. Participants scored a mean of 57.5% on the initial knowledge questionnaire (KQ1), ranging between 33.6% and 79.8%. They lacked knowledge on: management of the hospitalised patient; diabetes and exercise; diabetes and religion; gestational diabetes; supplements commonly used by diabetics; diabetes in prisons; diabetes in children; the function, side-effects and contra-indications of metformin. The mean score on the second knowledge questionnaire (KQ2) increased to 90.5%, with the lowest score 50.4% and the highest 99.2%.There were two questions where participants scored < 50% (mean of n = 79) which related to the type of insulin regime most suitable during Ramadan and risk factors for Type 2 DM in children. Data were also analyzed according to various socio-demographic variables, but only one significant difference was found between groups. Conclusions and implications: There is adequate research available to develop a comprehensive guide for HCP on the nutritional management of DM. Such an MNT manual should be marketed for CPD purposes to encourage HCP to improve their DM management skills, as seen by the dramatic improvement in DM management knowledge of the RDs participating in this research. Future studies may include knowledge testing of other HCP, as well as testing to determine if the newly acquired information is put into practice to the benefit of DM patients.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Objektiewe: Die ontwikkeling en toets van 'n bemarkbare, Voortgesette Professionele Ontwikkeling (VPO) geakkrediteerde handleiding oor die rol van mediese voedings terapie (MVT) vir mediese personeel van die multi-dissiplinêre Tipe 1- en Tipe 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) behandelings span. Metodes: Die studie het bestaan uit 2 komponente: (a) die ontwikkeling van die MVT handleiding en (b) die toets van die MVT handleiding. Die ontwikkeling van die MVT handleiding het bestaan uit sewe stappe: (1) assesering van benodighede en probleem definisie, (2) literatuursoektog; (3) aanvanklike konsep van die MVT handleiding; (4) eweknie evaluasie; (5) volgende konsep weergawe van die MVT handleiding; (6) evaluering deur ‘n meningsopname; en (7) die finale MVT handleiding. Die toets van die MVT handleiding se impak op die kennis het 'n toets-hertoets ontwerp gehad wat bestaan het uit sewe stappe: (1) DM kennis vraelys ontwikkeling; (2) deelnemer werwing; (3) toets van vraelys; (4) toets van aanvanklike kennis; (5) selfstudie van die MVT handleiding; (6) hertoetsing van kennis; en (7) statistiese analise. Resultate: Uit die literatuur is 132 gepubliseerde dokumente gekies vir insluiting in die MVT handleiding na gradering van die kwaliteit van die inligting. Die aanvanklike konsep is ontwikkel, taalversorg en eweknie geevalueer. Aanbevole veranderinge is gemaak en die tweede konsep is ontwikkel en gestuur aan 79 dieetkundiges wat vrywillig die MVT handleiding gelees het en aan ‘n meningsopname deelgeneem het. Uit die meningsopname was dit duidelik dat die meerderheid tevrede was met die inhoud, wat gelei het tot die finale MVT handleiding.Die vraelys is opgestel met 10 vrae per afdeling van die MVT handleiding, en getoets deur 10% (n = 7) van die totale aantal deelnemers, waarna geringe veranderinge gemaak is. Vir kennis toetsing, is dieetkundiges tussen die ouderdomme van 23 en 60 jaar, wat geregistreer is by die Raad vir Gesondheidsberoepe van Suid-Afrika, ingesluit. Deelnemers het 'n gemiddeld behaal van 57.5 % op die aanvanklike kennis vraelys, met kennis wat gewissel het tussen 33.6% en 79.8%. Hulle het aanvanklik gebrekkige kennis gehad oor: die behandeling van die hospitaal pasiënt; diabetes en oefening; diabetes en godsdiens; swangerskaps diabetes; aanvullings gebruik deur diabete; diabetes in gevangenisse; pediatriese diabetes; asook die funksie, newe-effekte en kontra-indikasies van metformien. Die gemiddelde telling op die tweede kennis vraelys het toegeneem tot 90.5%, met ‘n laagste telling van 50.4% en hoogste van 99.2%. Daar was 2 vrae waar deelnemers < 50% (gemiddelde % van n = 79) behaal het. Hierdie vrae het verband gehou met die mees geskikte insulien behandeling tydens Ramadan en risikofaktore vir Tipe 2 DM in kinders. Data is ontleed volgens verskeie sosio-demografiese veranderlikes, maar slegs een beduidende verskil is tussen groepe gevind. Gevolgtrekkings en implikasies: Daar is voldoende navorsing beskikbaar om ‘n omvattende handleiding vir mediese personeel oor die rol van voeding in die behandeling van DM te ontwikkel. So 'n MVT handleiding moet bemark word vir VPO doeleindes om mediese personeel aan te moedig om hul DM bestuursvaardighede te verbeter, soos gesien deur die dramatiese verbetering in DM bestuur kennis van die huidige deelnemers. Toekomstige navorsing kan die bepaling van kennis verbetering van ander mediese professies insluit, en of die verbeterde kennis in die praktyk DM pasiënte bevoordeel.

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